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Elementary Project Abstracts

Abstracts are sorted alphabetically by category. Jump to the start of a particular category by clicking a category link below. See Junior & Senior Division Project Abstracts

[Energy: Chemical & Physical] (1EN-1001) Is A Solar Panel More Efficient Than A Gas Generator (Solar Vs. Gas)

I compared the efficiencies of a gasoline generator to a solar panel. My hypothesis was that solar panels would be more efficient than the gasoline generator, but my results proved the opposite. Some of the good things about gasoline generators are that they produce alternating current (AC). AC is very easy to use. For things that use direct current (DC), we have AC to DC converters for them, but it’s more difficult to convert DC to AC. Gas generators also work in most weather and all times of day. But gasoline needs to be refilled occasionally and we will eventually run out of this amazing fuel, as we use up oil at a faster rate than it is produced. Generators also pollute the air, causing global warming, acid rain, and smog. Solar panels on the other hand create clean energy, and NEVER need to be refilled with fuel of any kind because sunlight is free and abundant. The downside is that it is heavily affected by the day-night cycle and weather. Making gas requires a LOT of time and energy. It’s not some magical feat that only scientists can achieve, but a long term process that converts light into sugar with photosynthesis in plants. The plants then die at some point and are somehow buried deep underground. The heat and pressure underground decompose the sugar and minerals in the plant into the messy oil we extract with big machines. This is not a very efficient process.


[Engineering: Electrical & Computer Science] (1EE-1002) Where's My Wi Fi?

I experimented with a Parabolic Reflector to improve wireless internet signal. The parabolic reflector enhanced the speed and range of the wireless network. I ran speed tests to determine the speed, range, latency, connectivity, etc. This applies to our world by improving signals for a better wireless network, which is a big problem in today's world because almost everyone uses a mobile phone or computer. I focused the signals by using the parabolic reflector that I built. (Make cardboard center, aluminum parabola and glue together) Readers should care about my project because it has a significant impact in our generation. The internet is used for everything. It will help build the perfect wireless network that everyone enjoys.


[Engineering: Mechanical] (1ME-1003) Automotive Aerodynamics

The study of airflow on road vehicles. How to improve measured turbulence and aerodynamics by the use of different body shapes and wings.


[Earth & Environmental Sciences] (1ES-2004) Ocean Water Desalination

We used several different techniques to desalinate Pacific Ocean water. Results from each technique were compared by efficiency and by testing qualify of the water that was produced.
We compared distillation, reverse osmosis and electrochemical desalination.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1005) Color Science

My project helps artists find the brightest color so they can use less resources. I looked at RGB color, hue, value, and saturation to measure the colors as they faded from light.


[Engineering: Electrical & Computer Science] (1EE-1006) Human Powered Generator An Engineering Solution (Phase Ii)

Currently there is not a way to generate energy that simultaneously makes people happier and healthier. My ultimate goal is to create a bicycle that can generate power and is safe enough to use in a public location. Last year, my research supported how exercise makes people happier because of endorphin production. I also found that it is possible to build a prototype of a bicycle connected to a motor that can generate enough energy to power common devices. However, my prototype last year could not safely charge a battery because the voltage produced was too high.

This year in Phase II, the engineering problem I am attempting to solve is: How can I reduce the voltage generated from my human-powered motor to safely charge a battery?

My research focused on four main areas: methods of reducing voltage produced from my motor, lower-voltage DC motors, electrical and fire safety requirements to incorporate into my redesign, and monitoring equipment for measuring voltage and current.

After completing my research, I defined key changes to my generator system: voltage reduction, safety options, and user-friendly design, I sketched/designed my system with my safety considerations; I purchased my necessary parts; and I built my Phase II prototype.

After my redesign, my human-powered generator produced power at a voltage to safely charge a 12-volt battery. The suggestions from a licensed electrician and fire inspector were incorporated to improve overall safety, and multimeters were successfully installed onto the handlebars so the endorphin-filled cyclist can see how much power is being generated.


[Engineering: Electrical & Computer Science] (1EE-1007) Electromagnets

My project is about electromagnets. I looked at how electricity and copper wire can turn an iron bolt into a magnet. I designed this experiment to determine what impact, if any, the type of wire used would have on the strength of the bolt's magnetic force. I experimented with un-insulated stranded copper wire, insulated stranded copper wire, and un-insulated solid copper wire. I learned that the un-insulated stranded copper wire and un-insulated solid copper wire generated the strongest magnetic force. The plastic insulation on the insulated copper wire blocks some of the electrical current to the iron bolt, so it creates a weaker magnetic force.


[Engineering: Mechanical] (1ME-2008) Ready, Set, Fire

Do the properties of the ball (hardness, solid, texture, size, weight, and composition) effect how high and how far the catapult can throw a ball? That is what we set out to find the answer to. We chose a catapult design and with the help of a parent assembled the catapult. We decided which balls to evaluate: baseball, t-ball, foam ball, golf ball, ping pong ball, tennis ball, and wiffle ball. Our hypothesis was that the lightest, smallest, smoothest ball would travel the farthest. Comparing the properties, it was believed that it would be the ping pong ball. Procedures included floor and wall markers for measurement. 3 trials were preformed using each ball. Data was recorded and analyzed. The data supported the golf ball to have the most height and distance overall which is contrary to our hypothesis. This process was not with out variables and redesign and retesting considerations.


[Engineering: Electrical & Computer Science] (1EE-3011) Ev3 Line Follower

Our project was was designed to see if a Lego EV3 robot could follow a line. The EV3 measures the reflective light intensity of a line using a light sensor. Using EV3 software and a computer, we had to program the EV3 to follow a line using a color sensor. We also built the EV3 so that it could move, carry the sensor, measure light sensitivity using the sensor and maneuver. We went through more than five programs and three build redesigns to make the robot work as we had planned.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PA-1014) Matchstick Rockets

The Matchstick Rocket demonstrates Isaac Newton's laws of motion as they relate to rocketry. Specifically, Newton's third law is demonstrated in this experiment. Using matches wrapped in tinfoil, the goal was to figure out if larger pinholes in the foil allow the rocket to fly farther.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1016) The Effect Of Video Games On The Body

The autonomic nervous system is important in emergencies because it triggers the fight or flight response. The heart beats faster, the lungs breath faster, pupils get bigger, reaction time gets better, and pain tolerance increases. The fight or flight response is triggered by instinct to a perceived threat. Playing video games puts a person in a virtual world. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect that video games have on the body; specifically, if they trigger the fight or flight response.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PA-2017) How Altitude Affects The Bounce Of A Tennis Ball

HYPOTHESIS: Higher altitude will make a tennis ball bounce higher because the air is thinner. Higher altitude will have less air pressure therefore making the tennis ball harder & bounce higher.
PROCEDURE: We recorded the altitude & temperature of each location (Portland & Bend, OR; Park City & Salt Lake City, UT). On a flat black top surface at each location, we dropped a tennis ball 3 times each at a height of 4' and 5'. One person dropped the ball from the appropriate height & the other person looked at the tape measure & eyeballed how high it bounced.
CONCLUSION: We expected that when we went to the higher altitude location, the tennis ball would bounce higher. But we found that our thoughts were not always correct. The experiment worked better at 4' than at 5'. The ball bounced higher in Portland than we expected because the temperature was higher. Potential reasons for this are (1) the temperature was different; (2) we used different actual tennis balls (but same type); (3) we had to eyeball the height measurement; and (4) the surfaces could have been a little bit different.
WHAT WE LEARNED: We could have taken a slow motion video of the ball bouncing next to the tape measure so our data could have been more precise than eyeballing it. We could have both been in every location together so we could spot any mistakes the other may have made. We could have used the exact same tennis ball.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1018) Cool Curds

Cottage Cheese is formed when an acid is added to milk or cream. The protein in the milk separates and forms into curds. My problem is: Which temperature of cream will produce more curds when you combine vinegar and cream? I think that a higher temperature will produce more curds. I think that the proteins in the cream will separate from the heat and be more likely produce curds. I heated and cooled cream. I added room temperature vinegar to them during 3 trials. After measuring the final amounts of curd, the result was that the room temperature cream created more curds. The average curd weight for the refrigerated cream (39°) was 20g. The average curd weight for the room temperature cream (70°) was 29.2g. The average curd weight for the heated cream (120°) was 21g. In conclusion, the cream at room temperature formed the most curds. The hot cream and the cool cream didn’t make any curds, but did form a thick precipitate. This was a surprise to me because I thought that the hot cream would make more curds. I think that the hot cream didn’t make more curds because it was way too hot and probably melted the proteins in the cream. I think that the cool cream didn’t make the most curds because the proteins weren’t separated enough. Next time, I would try to heat the cream a little less so the proteins could come apart, but not melt all the way.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1023) Which Backpack Is Better?

This project is about any students health. It captures which backpack (roller-bag or backpack) will cause more or less pain, which is more handy, and which one is better for school in general.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BI-1024) Effect Of Temperature On Hatching Brine Shrimp

Brine shrimp were placed in Petri dishes, covered with salt water (24 ppt), and incubated under continuous light for three days. The experiment was performed at three different temperatures- 76 degrees F, 82 degrees F, and 88 degrees F. Hatch rates for each dish were calculated by dividing the number of shrimp by the number of starting eggs on days 1, 2, and 3. The rates were compared to determine the optimal temperature for hatching of brine shrimp eggs.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PA-2027) Does Temperature Affect How Balls Bounce?

This project tests how temperature affects how high rubber balls bounce. We used 5 different rubber balls and had 5 temperature conditions: room temperature, warm (soaked in hot tap water for 3 minutes), hot (soaked in boiling water for 30 minutes), cold (placed in refrigerator for 30 minutes), or freezing (placed in freezer for 30 minutes). Bounce height was measured using a yard stick and checked with slow-motion camera across 5 trials for each condition. Out of the five temperatures, the ball in the boiled water condition (hot) bounced the highest. Our research showed that this result happened because at higher temperatures, there is more air pressure, leading to higher bounce. Also, as the temperature increases, the gas molecules expand, causing a higher bounce.


[Engineering: Electrical & Computer Science] (1EE-1030) Turn Signal Jacket

It’s hard to see cyclists at night especially when they are turning. My goal was to create a jacket that uses LED lights that can be seen at day or night as turn signals. I created a simple circuit that uses buttons as switches to turn the signals on. The jacket also has a flap on the back so you can put a backpack on and still see and use the turn signals!


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BI-1031) What Area Of Our School Is The Dirtiest?

I took germ samples from 9 different places around my school and grew the bacteria to find out which place contained the most germs. I thought that the bathroom would be the dirtiest, but the student's desk was actually the winner. The teacher's keyboard and the reception desk were also very dirty. I think this information can help our school because if we try to keep these areas cleaner it might help everyone from passing germs and spreading sicknesses.


[Engineering: Electrical & Computer Science] (1EE-1033) Coding Robots

I've coded a program using a raspberry pi computer that will say what you type in or tell a joke depending on what button you press.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PA-1035) Magnet Madness

My project explored the strength of magnets and the effect of temperature on that strength. It is important to know this information for medical and mechanical purposes as well as to have a greater understanding of how the Earth's magnetic field works. Medical and mechanical equipment use magnets and knowing if temperature of the magnets effect their strength greatly effects their accuracy.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1037) Video Games And Memory

Topic: Video Games and Short-Term Memory
Question: Is short-term memory affected by playing a video game?
Background: Many people have questioned the effects on the brain of playing video games. Some believe that video games are a bad influence, while others think that there could be positive effects. Scientists have discovered that playing video games can affect short-term memory.
Hypothesis: My hypothesis is that short-term memory will improve after playing the “Fruit Ninja” video game.


[Engineering: Mechanical] (1ME-1038) Lego To 3 D Fillament

My brothers bought a 3d printer and I wanted use it. They said I had to buy the filament if I wanted to use it. I did a little research and found that filament is expensive, costing $30 to $50. I can’t pay for that. So I thought, “there has to be a better way.” I did some research and found that Lego bricks are made of ABS, the same plastic in 3D printers. The glass transition point of ABS is 221°F and a high temp glue gun can heat to 380°F. Next step, I need to get the Lego bricks in a glue gun. I needed to grind the plastic, but how? I thought of many different ways, a hammer, a chainsaw, a hand crank meat grinder, a coffee grinder, and a garbage disposal. I compared my options and decide on the garbage disposal, which was the hardiest, had the most power, and was least likely to break. I sorted and ground the Legos into a powder, then started the long process of extruding. After about an hour, I made an important decision to take apart the glue gun. I drilled a hole in a 2x4 for the glue gun parts. I replaced the wooden dowel with metal one and finally I had filament! Next I loaded the filament into the 3Doodler, because I didn’t want to break a 3d printer, and waited. Soon the tiniest sliver of green appeared, and it was smooth sailing from that point on.


[Chemistry] (1CH-2039) What Cools The Hot Sauce?

The purpose of this experiment was to find out what liquid- milk, water, or sprite- would cool your mouth down the fastest after putting a q-tip of hot sauce on your tongue. We decided to test 60 subjects-20 with water, 20 with milk and 20 with sprite. Our hypotheses: If you put a q-tip of hot sauce on your tongue, Milk will take away the heat more quickly than water or sprite because milk is thicker and absorbs the heat better than water and sprite.

Each subject placed a q-tip of hot sauce on there tongue and then rated how hot there mouth was on a pain scale from 1-10 (10 being the hottest and 1 being the coolest). Ten seconds later we had them drink 1/3 cup of milk, water, or sprite. Twenty seconds later they again rated how hot there mouth felt.

Subjects reported the biggest reduction in "hotness" rating after drinking milk, with the least reduction after drinking water. Our hypothesis was partially correct because milk did seem to cool down a hot tongue, although just barely more than Sprite. If we did this experiment again then we would make sure that the three groups were similar in age and gender so that their baseline ratings were similar.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1042) Beet The Ice

The purpose of my project was to find out whether beet juice could be used as a substitute or additive to the road salt. Road salt causes corrosion to roads and cars, and it can also be transferred into different mediums like soil and water system and cause harm. My hypothesis was that if beet juice was mixed into the road salt, then the ice will melt quicker. I tested my hypotheses by using various combinations of salts and beet juice. I found that the beet juice and road salt was the best combination for melting the ice. Then I tested the electrical conductivity using the voltmeter to see which combination had the lowest conductivity. In my experiment, I found that the road salt and beet juice would be the best combination.


[Engineering: Mechanical] (1ME-1046) Magnet Powered Generator

I am testing how LEDs light up when varying numbers of neodymium magnets, from 1 to 12, are used as kinetic energy producers in a hand-powered electricity generator.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PA-1047) High Potential

How does the mass of the ball change the distance the ball will travel successfully down the course?

A roller coaster consists of kinetic and potential energy. At the top of the hill the car has potential energy, determined by the mass and height of the car. As cars go down the hill, the potential energy is transformed to kinetic energy, energy in motion. Just like with potential energy, kinetic energy is influenced by mass.

Changing the weight of a roller coaster car will change the energy of the ride. Increasing the weight of the car will increase the energy, making the car go faster or a further distance. It would be interesting to change the weight of the roller coaster car to see if too much mass causes problems. My hypothesis is that if you increase the mass of the coaster car, the car will travel down the track at a higher speed and go a further distance because the increased mass results in more energy.

I tested 3 ping pong balls of different weights on a PVC coaster track, consisting of one loop and an upward sloped off ramp. The lightest ball traveled the shortest distance and the medium weight ball traveled the furthest distance. The heaviest ball traveled further than the lightest ball but not as far as the medium weight ball. This may be because the heaviest ball needed more energy, based upon its mass, to get through the loop. My hypothesis was partially supported.


[Engineering: Materials & Biomedical] (1MB-1048) Fishing Line: Which Type Is Strongest?

The purpose of my project is to test tension strength of the three most common types of fishing line. My procedure is to gather the materials needed that include the three types of fishing line; Braid, Flourocarbon and Monofilament, identified as the three most popular types of fishing line in my research, as well as ten pound weights. The next step is to build a frame to tie the fishing line to and attach the ten pound weights to the fishing line using size 3 ball bearing swivels. Finally, I will test each fishing line’s breaking point by adding the weight and observing which fishing line breaks first.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PA-1049) Magnetic Force Fields

Magnets are fun but mysterious. I aimed my experiment towards the magnetic force field of a magnet. The magnetic field is like a bubble surrounding the magnet. I would like to see how the magnetic field strength of a magnet will increase when two or more magnets are combined together. If each magnet has a hypothetical force of "5 magnetic field units", will that mean if you put two magnets together we will have a combined total of "10 magnetic field units"?

A lot of phenomena happens linearly, like light, for example. If you have two identical light bulbs, inside a dark room, what happens is that with one bulb on, the room will be bright as much as one light bulb can do, but as soon as you turn on the second light bulb, the room will be lit twice as much. Will magnets add up in similar fashion?

I performed my experiment, adding one additional magnet to a group of magnets as I measured the effect on a single separated magnet. Every time I added a new magnet, the added magnetic force to the total combined force was less strong that the previous magnetic force contribution. This means that magnetic forces do not add linearly, but in a decreasing curve manner instead. Each addition is a lesser powerful force contribution to the final total group force as the magnets are combined, and a plot of each consecutive addition comes up as a curve rather than a straight line.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PA-1051) Surface Tension Of Water

I explain the surface tension of water, why it exists, its unique properties and use a very unique way to measure surface tension. I alter the waters chemical composition and summarize with a physical experiment. I also incorporate graphs, photos and illustrations.


[Engineering: Civil & Environmental] (1CE-2052) Rocking The Boat

We tested how well two different types of boats would be stable in motion also while adding weight. Our two types of boats were bilge and bilge-keel.


[Engineering: Civil & Environmental] (1CE-2053) Goo Be Gone

In our project we tested which sorbents would best absorb oil in a mock oil spill.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1055) Scurvy Science

Purpose: To test the vitamin C content of 18th century explorer foods under different temperatures and over time to determine which food and conditions are best at preventing scurvy.

Procedure: Juice from an orange (control) and sage, oregano, cabbage, celery, and parsley (dependent variables) was mixed with an iodine-starch solution under three different temperatures over a 5-day period (independent variables). Iodine was combined with starch to form triiodide: I2 + I- ? I3- which oxidizes vitamin C to form dehydroascorbic acid: C6H8O6 + I3- + H2O ? C6H6O6 + 3I- + 2H+. As long as vitamin C was present in the juice solutions, the triiodide converted to the iodide ion very quickly and changed the color. After a 5-minute period comparison of relative vitamin C content was made based on ranking blue-black color of the 6 juices.

Data: Under almost all conditions the vitamin C content of the orange was consistently the highest. Of the explorer foods, sage most consistently had the highest vitamin C and parsley most consistently had the lowest vitamin C under all conditions. By day 3 the outdoor reactions were consistently the fastest suggesting colder temperature preserves vitamin C content. Over time the differences of colors (ranking) between specimens became more difficult.

Conclusion: Of the food types available to 18th century explorers, to prevent scurvy they should have taken more sage and less parsley on their voyages. Freezing food may preserve the vitamin C content. Vitamin C content appears to decrease over time.


[Engineering: Mechanical] (1ME-1056) Windmills Pumping Water

Much of the world does not have clean water. This project is to design an inexpensive, wind-powered water pump to draw water from wells. The design uses PVC, scrap wood, and a recycled bicycle wheel to keep costs low. Several design problems were overcome, but there were a couple problems that I did not have time to solve. I believe this is a good start to solve the problem of bringing clean water to the whole world.


[Plant Sciences] (1PS-1057) Who Soiled My Soil?

Compost provides plants important nutrients, which allows them to grow stronger and healthier yielding bigger crops and a better ability to hold moisture and resist disease. I wanted to test which compost is the best additive for garden soil: homemade or store bought. My hypothesis was that homemade compost would be the best because it contains a bigger variety of materials than store bought.
Four garden plots were constructed to test which compost would grow green beans the best. Each plot contained either well-established garden soil, no compost, store bought or homemade compost. Two separate plantings of eight seeds per plot were performed. To determine plant growth I measured the number of days to first sprout, the number and weight of beans for three harvests. Soil chemistry (pH, nitrogen, potash and phosphorus) as well as composition (sand, silt and clay) was evaluated.
The positive control plot (established garden soil) yielded the greatest number of beans. Two plants from control produced 342 beans and 1117 grams in weight. Of the experimental groups store bought produced 2 plants with 58 beans weighing 169 grams. It produced a higher yield of beans compared to homemade compost in which two out of eight beans sprouted then died before harvest. The negative control (no compost) plot didn’t show growth. Soil pH for the positive control was closest to desired. I discovered that store bought compost grew the most green beans in bad soil but soil that has been used for gardening gave even better results.


[Energy: Chemical & Physical] (1EN-1058) Spinning Energy

This project is about electromagnets and to see if different amounts of magnets and different sized wheels changed the energy outcome. I compared two different sized wheels and different amounts of magnets that were spun over a coil and I recorded the outcome. When tested, the smaller wheel with three magnets generated more energy than the larger wheel with fewer magnets. My hypothesis is that the more frequent a magnet passes the coil the greater the energy output and my testing and research proved this to be true.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1059) Does The Melting Point Of Chocolate Change Based On How Many Ingredients It Has?

I wanted to find out if chocolate melted faster or slower based on how many ingredients it had. I thought chocolates with more ingredients would melt faster because they are less pure. It turns out that chocolate with fewer ingredients actually melt faster, but more importantly the melting was inhibited by an ingredient called soy lechithin. Soy lechithin is an emulsifier that is used to increase the shelf life of chocolate. It changes the way chocolate melts and what happens to chocolate when it re-hardens.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PA-1061) Bouncin' Basketball

The purpose of this project is to determine what surface will absorb the most kinetic energy when bouncing a basketball on it. The surface that absorbs the most will cause the basketball to bounce the least. The surface that absorbs the least, will cause the basketball to bounce the highest. We bounced a basketball on 5 different surfaces to determine which surface caused the basketball to bounce the highest. Four of the surfaces were hard and one of the surfaces was soft. I had someone video each time I dropped the ball and I reviewed each drop after the ball bounced 1 time. With a yard stick taped to the wall and the ball dropped 55 inches above the ground each time, I recorded my results on a chart, I was able to come up with a conclusion on which type of surface the ball bounced the best on.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PA-1062) The "Brightest" Led Light Bulb In Salt Lake City

We all know that light emitting diodes (LED) light bulbs are the most efficient of all light bulbs, right? Have you ever wondered which brand of LED light bulbs were the best, as in most eco-friendly, bright, cost efficient and energy-saving? Well, my project is about which type of LED bulb brand is the best in Salt Lake City. It will help even the world become a better, more economy friendly place. First, I did research. I found some popular LED brands there. So, next came along the question. Mine was, Which LED light bulb brand is the best in Salt Lake City? Then, based off research, I constructed my hypothesis: The best LED light bulb brand was going to be CREE. I then conducted my experiment, by measuring the light intensity, temperature change, and the bulbs life span vs the price. I then drew some charts off of my results. My results was that FEIT was the best brand. The total possible score for each brand was 18 points. FEIT got sixteen out of eighteen points. My conclusion is that my hypothesis was not supported by my results. I wrote my procedure, did my bibliography, and organized all my data.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PA-1064) Soaring To Win

I conducted an experiment to determine whether a higher or lower launch angle would allow a balsa wood glider to fly the furthest. I launched the gliders with a "T" launcher that would give an accurate launch power and angle every time. My data showed that a somewhat lower launch angle was better. 15 degrees will give you a fair flight. However, I found that 10 degrees will provide an even better distance than 15 degrees. Therefore, I determined that a lower angle, such as 10 or 15 degrees, is the best launch angle.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PA-1065) Under Pressure

While measuring how far water squirted out of a hole in a water filled tube, I learned that the greater the amount of water above the hole, the farther the water squirted.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PA-1066) How To Make Fruit Salad Using Small Caliber Bullets

I like shooting. I wanted to learn the effect different bullets have on targets. The energy formula to calculate the energy of a bullet is similar to Einstein's E=mc^2. My hypothesis was faster bullets will cause more damage. I tested 3 different bullets: .22 LR; 9mm; and .223 high power shooting at cantaloupes. The .223 caused the most damage. It traveled at 3 times the speed of the other bullets. Velocity is squared in the formula so velocity has the bigger influence on the energy. I also learned about hydrostatic shock which is the shock wave coming off the bullet. This shock wave cause a very dramatic effect with the .223 bullets. My hypothesis was correct, faster bullets caused more damage.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BI-1068) A Midwinter Blueberry Dream

We have all heard it discussed that organic foods are healthier both for the environment and for humans. Is there a way to test for for this? Might pesticides interfere with the nutritiousness of a food? My science fair project was focused on comparing the antioxidant levels in organic and non-organic fruits, with the hypothesis that organic foods would have higher antioxidant content. I used the Briggs Rauscher reaction:an oscillating reaction in which amber radical and blue non-radical steps alternate. By adding samples of different types of food extracts to the reaction and measuring the time intervals between color changes, I compared the effectiveness of the samples as radical scavengers. My samples were lime, grape tomatoes and blueberries (both organic and non organic varieties of each). Distilled water was used as control. I plotted the data from the various trials in box-whisker plots and compared the median time for color change, for each type of food. I found a statistically meaningful difference in the antioxidant levels of organic blueberries versus non-organic ones. The difference in tomatoes was not as convincing, and for limes the data was inconclusive. If the intent is to buy organic food with the goal of getting more antioxidants, berries are your best bet.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BI-1072) Got Gas? The Glycemic Index And The Production Of Methane Gas

The purpose of this project was to see if the glycemic index is a good predictor of methane production from specific foods. Foods high, middle, and low on the glycemic index were blended with water and placed in bottles which were sealed with balloons. The circumference of the balloons was recorded for five days and then compared. The data agreed with the hypothesis which was that if foods high, medium, and low on the glycemic index are allowed to decay in bottles sealed with balloons, then the balloons on the bottles containing food high on the glycemic index will expand more than those with medium and low glycemic index foods. This information could be important in solving the problem of methane pollution from food waste and the solution of harvesting that methane as an alternative fuel source.


[Earth & Environmental Sciences] (1ES-1073) Does Utah Have The Cleanest Snow On Earth?

They say Utah has the “greatest snow on Earth,” but does it have the cleanest snow? Scientists have found that Northern Canada had the cleanest snow in North America. My research question was: which state has the cleanest snow? My hypothesis was that Alaska would have the cleanest snow since it is closest to Canada. For my experiment, I collected a snow sample from Utah and I asked relatives from Alaska, Colorado, and Massachusetts to mail me snow samples. These snow samples were my independent variable. To measure snow cleanliness, I used litmus paper to measure potential Hydrogen (pH) and a meter to measure total dissolved solids (TDS). These were my dependent variables. I tested pH and TDS of the samples three times to find the average. In my results, Utah and Colorado had the best pH, and Massachusetts had the best TDS. When combining both measures, the overall winner was Colorado, Utah was second, Massachusetts was third, and Alaska was fourth. Despite these rankings, each snow sample had a very good score. My hypothesis was incorrect, since Alaska did not have the cleanest snow. In conclusion, Colorado had the cleanest snow on Earth (of the places I looked). In future experiments, I would test more states, test different cities in each state, and test snow from different altitudes. This research is important because dirty snow leads to dirty water and possibly poor health. By knowing about our state’s pollution problems, we can work to fix those problems.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BI-1074) Effect Of Repeated Exposure To Antibiotics On Bacterial Resistance

The purpose of this study was to determine if the frequent use of antibiotics affects bacterial resistance. I tested for bacterial resistance by smearing the bacteria over agar Petri dishes and placing small white antibiotic discs on each dish. This process was repeated by collecting bacteria around the clearing, also known as the inhibition zone, and growing more. The hypothesis was that the inhibition zone would decrease in size after repeated exposure to the antibiotic. The hypothesis was supported suggesting that the bacteria become more resistant to the drug.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1076) It's Not What It Seems

The purpose of this project was to see if shadows can trick the mind. The hypothesis is that shadows can trick the mind by using light and color. The methods were testing all types of people on two different videos. Five questions in total where ask of the people. Two for the first video, and three for the second video. The data was analyzed, and the hypothesis was accepted. Because all together their test would have been 50%.


[Engineering: Mechanical] (1ME-1079) Looping The Loop

This science project was about designing a roller coaster. The question was asking what the minimum height of the starting point needed to be to make a marble loop a loop with a diameter of 15 inches. The hypothesis was that the minimum height needed to be about 30 inches, which is the double size of the diameter of the loop, based on the assumption that the track’s friction may take away a certain amount of the energy generated by the height. The purpose was to find the minimum height for the starting point of a roller coaster so that roller coaster designers/builders could save the cost. The types of kinetic energy, as well as their formulas, were researched, and a roller coaster was built with foam insulation pipes, tape, scissors, and a support piece. During the experiment, the distance between the beginning of the track and the loop was fixed at 46 inches. The starting point of the height was 10 inches to test the effects of the friction caused by the track. The height was continually raised if the original height was unsuccessful, and each different height was tested 9 times. The results were that the minimum starting point height was 30 inches; the hypothesis was correct. In the conclusion, the hypothesis and the results were restated. It also states that the formula for kinetic energy, which is KE=0.5·M·V^2, where M=mass and V=speed, is very important because the higher the height, the more speed, and therefore more energy.


[Engineering: Mechanical] (1ME-2080) Go Cars Go

We wanted to create a car that ran by balloon power. We copied off the internet and fixed it to run much better.


[Engineering: Mechanical] (1ME-1081) It's A Bird! It's A Plane?! What Shapes Are More Invisible To Radar?

Since WWI people have been trying to make planes invisible to the eye with different colors of paint and materials.

RADAR can identify planes from long distances and help missiles shoot them down.

I wanted to learn how to make planes more invisible to RADAR and to see what shapes would be the best to make a stealth airplane.

I learned that certain shapes are better than others at making a plane's RADAR cross-section smaller.


[Earth & Environmental Sciences] (1ES-1084) Fighting The Fertilizers

My project dealt with the impact of compost and chemical fertilizer on the air, the environment, lima bean plants and the Earth. I tested compost and chemical fertilizer on common Fordhook lima bean bush plants to see if one of the plants grew taller and healthier. Another part of my testing was seeing which plant germinated (shed a thin layer of membrane and split in half) or started the reproduction cycle earlier. I also researched both plant food's effect on the environment and the impact on the health of bees and birds when they came to feed on the plants. My project ended up proving that compost is better than fertilizer, it is safer than compost for animals and insects and that it sends less pollutants into the air. My project is important because it deals with an issue people are not very well aware of, and because it ties in apiology, science, agriculture and chemistry into one experiment that tests different plant foods. Overall, my project was about which plant food is better for plants, insects, animals and the air.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PA-1085) Rock On!

The abstract of my project is to determine if thick strings/low pitches have more surrounding vibration than thin strings with high pitches.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-2088) Yay Or Neigh...

Animal training is a Big Business. If you own a horse, you already know it takes several months/years of training just to ride it. At our barn, everyone wonders how to train their horses more efficiently? The "whipping method" is often used at the Kentucky Derby, which is heartbreaking for horse owners to hear. We needed to determine if horses could respond better to verbal praise, pat on head, grooming or treats. Our initial research uncovered several studies showing the importance of using treats. However, which treats had not yet been identified.

When training a horse, which treat reward are horses more eager or willing to work for? Its time for us to test those treats! We tested 26 horses by allowing them to sniff each treat and then releasing them to discover which one they wanted most. We wondered if the horses would eat all the treats (horse buffet). However, 89% selected a single treat. For more in depth answers we repeated the entire process by switching the treats around, and surveyed customers at a feed store.

Want to train your own horse? Horses can smell tasty food and want to please their owners. Finding the right treat can definitely speed up the training process. 50% of each test showed horses prefer Apples. The outcome of our project is important to horse owners, trainers, veterinarians, etc. who want to train their horses quickly and efficiently. Our hypothesis was correct. An apple a day makes a horse say YAY!


[Chemistry] (1CH-2089) Zap Goes The Static

After we had built our electroscope, we got our first material, a balloon. We rubbed it for a minute on a Styrofoam takeout plate,and put our electroscope which had the pie pan under it, on top of it. Measured how far the string, which was attached vertically to the straw and had an aluminium foil ball around it, would go away from the pan.
We measured the distance in centimeter from the cop, to the pie pan. We tested this experiment three times for the balloon, along with other materials we had. After we did this, we recorded the results in our journal. The material that won was the wool, and the material that lost was wood. The order from winning to loosing was:wool, fur, balloon, comb, and wood.


[Engineering: Mechanical] (1ME-2091) Column Crushers

A column is a structure that is built to transmit a gravity load from top to bottom. Columns are also used in bridges, towers, cranes, airplanes, machinery, and furniture. Columns can also be called struts, pillars or posts. Timber, stone and masonry columns have been used since the beginning of time. Today we also use steel, aluminum, concrete, plastic and composite materials. This project is about creating and testing the strength of different thicknesses of foam core and basswood columns. We created the foam core columns using 32"x40" sheets of foam core. We cut the sheets into 6 inch wide pieces and glued the pieces together with Elmer's glue. Our hypothesis was that if we increase the thickness of a foam core column, then the load the column can carry will increase as well. To test the columns we built a wood framework with a sheet of plywood that could slide up and down on 4 wood posts. We would raise the plywood to the top of the posts then center the column between the base and sheet of plywood. Next we would add weight to the top of the plywood thus increasing the pressure on the column. We would continue to load weight on the plywood until the column failed and buckled. The results proved that our hypothesis was correct.


[Earth & Environmental Sciences] (1ES-1092) Which Type Of Upcycled Insulator Works Best?

This project is about how well a material that was up-cycled works to insulate a cup of hot water. I took four materials; newspaper, packing egg foam, cork, and Styrofoam peanuts and put them in a bowl. In the very middle of the bowl there was a plastic cup full of water between 175-165 degrees Fahrenheit. I took the starting temperature and put the bowl in the refrigerator and set the timer for ten minutes. After waiting ten minutes, I found the ending temperature and calculated the change in heat loss.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-2093) Blame It On The Game

Parents think that if their kids spend too much time playing video games, their academics will be affected. We wanted to test this idea to see if test scores actually are lowered and to see how video games affect different people. We tested twenty kids before and after playing a video game. From the data we collected, we were able to conclude that video games did affect the test results for our test group negatively.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PA-1095) How Does Temperature Affect Pitch

This project investigates how changes in temperature affect the pitch of a tuned viola.


[Engineering: Mechanical] (1ME-1097) Effects Of Weight Distribution In A Yo Yo

Investigation of how changes in the moment of inertia effects how long a yo-yo will remain spinning after being dropped.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1099) Fire Resistant Balloons

This project is to test what materials can make a balloon more fire resistant.