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Elementary Project Abstracts

Abstracts are sorted alphabetically by category. Jump to the start of a particular category by clicking a category link below. See Junior & Senior Division Project Abstracts

Behavioral & Social Sciences
Biology & Biochemistry
Energy & Transportation
Engineering & Computer Science
Environmental Sciences
Medicine & Health Sciences
Physics, Astronomy & Math
Plant & Earth Sciences

[Chemistry] (1CH-1001) What Size Is Fastest?

Which size alka-seltzer tablet will complete it's chemical reaction fastest in water; a whole tablet, a tablet cut in half, a tablet cut in quarters, or a tablet crushed into poweder?

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1590) The Effects Of Blade Density On Low Speed Savonius Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

My project introduces the use of the Savonius Wind Turbine at a low wind speed (2.7mps) which matches Utah's average wind velocity. I wanted to generate electricity effectively and efficiently. This means being able to produce electricity at a low cost being affordable to the general population. To do this I developed a wind tunnel to find the ideal density range of the material that would produce the most electricity at 2.7mps. The Savonius Wind Turbine has been proven to be the most efficient wind turbine in a low wind speed environment.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1592) Get A Whiff Of This! Carbon Dioxide And Plant Growth

This project researches the effect of carbon dioxide on plant growth and tests to see whether increased carbon dioxide leads to increased plant growth. My hypothesis was that if plants were exposed to extra CO2, then they would grow taller and faster than plants that were not exposed to extra carbon dioxide. Ten beans seeds were germinated and then planted in environments with and without extra carbon dioxide. The growth of the plants was monitored. My hypothesis was correct. The plants that were exposed to extra CO2 grew taller and faster than those that were not

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1594) Creating My Own Computer Encrypt Method: W Shift

In this project, I used the Java programming language to analyze six encryption methods ( PBKDF2, sha1, BCrypt, SCrypt, MD5, and MD5 salted) on simple passwords through comparing them with unencrypted passwords. A brute force attack was used to find out how long it took to decipher the encrypted passwords. I found that the best encrypt is Bcrypt. The worst encrypt is MD5 not salted.

Based on the analysis, I designed and created my own encrypt method, the W-shift method. The W-shift used the following function to shift ASCII code while encrypting the passwords.

Vshift = Vascii + S If Vascii is less than or equal to Cend - S
Vshift = Vascii + S - (Cend - Cstart + 1) If Vascii is large than Cend - S

Here, Vascii is the value of the ASCII code. Vascii is within the range of Cstart to Cend. Vshift is the value after being shifted. S is a random generated numbers between 0 and (Cend - Cstart + 1). In my test run, S = 61, Cstart = 48, Cend = 122, Cend - Cstart + 1 = 75. The corresponded character is between “0” to “z”.

After comparing with the unencrypted passwords and the passwords encrypted with the six encrypts, I concluded that my encrypt (W-shift) is an effective way to encrypt passwords. W-shift is the fourth best out of the eight encrypts.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1601) Can Water Float On Water?

I compared the different densities of sugar water and salt water.
In experiment #1 I put the salt water in a bottle on sugar water in the bottle and they mixed.
In experiment #2 I made a concentrated solution of the sugar and salt and did the same thing as in experiment #1 and they mixed. I also put fresh water on top of the salt water and the fresh stayed on the salt. I put salt on the fresh and they mixed. I did the same with the sugar on fresh and got the same results.
In experiment #3 I used the same amount of sugar and salt in my solutions. I put the salt on the sugar and the mixed. I put the sugar on the salt and they stayed.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1602) On The Wing Position Of Gliders

I conducted an experiment to determine if a glider would fly better if the wings were ahead of, at, or behind the center of gravity. My data showed that the wings at the center of gravity flew better than the wings for or aft. I determined that this happened because the wings were supporting more of the whole plane, as opposed to part of it.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1603) Germination

Will dandelion seeds germinate in different conditions such as having been frozen 2 days, 7 days, not frozen, or exposed to high temperatures such as being baked? And, will they germinate in different solutions such as unaltered water, 1/8th salt water 1/3rd salt water, and 1/8th ice melter?

I took 7 different varieties of dandelion seeds. For each variety, I took 20 seeds which I: (a) left unaltered; (b) froze 7 days; c) froze 2 days; and (d) baked.

I then took 5 seeds of each of the 7 varieties which had been left unaltered, baked, frozen 7 days, and frozen 2 days, and put each of the 5 seeds in paper towels soaked with 4 different solutions(unaltered water, 1/8th salt water, 1/3rd salt water, 1/8th ice melter)in a 112 baggies (7 varieties x 4 conditions of the seeds x 4 solutions) and then put all the bags in north facing windows.

I then determined how many seeds germinated at 6 and 13 days.

Dandelion seeds almost uniformly fail to germinate in 1/8 salt, 1/3 salt, and 1/8 ice melter. Three seeds(2 seeds in 1/8th salt and 1 in 1/3rd salt) managed to germinate, but they died pretty quickly afterwards due to the salt. Salt and ice melter kill even hardy weeds like dandelions

Dandelion seeds germinate in unaltered water when they have been frozen for 7 days or 2 days or not frozen at all. Dandelions will not germinate when they have been exposed to extremely high temperatures.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1604) Ballon Vs Tac

My project studied the relationship between pressure and balloons. We set up a contraption with an arrangement of tacs and placed a balloon on top of it. We applied pressure to the balloon until the balloon popped. My hypothesis was that the more pressure there was the more tacs we would need to keep the balloon from popping. My hypothesis was correct it is displayed by my data.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1605) What Is Sublimation?

For this experiment I have built a sublimation tube out of plastic pipe. I tested whether having no water in the tube, or different temperatures of water in the tube would affect the rate at which CO2 sublimates. I did this by measuring the time it took for a certain size bubble to form on the end of the tube. I tested each variable 3 times to get an accurate result. This is just a very simple explanation of my experiment.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1606) Worm Farm Ecology & Construction

The purpose of this project was to determine which materials would make the best housing materials in a worm farm. The project involved using seventy earthworms to test possible housing materials. In this project, I wanted to see how the dirt that worms are sold in (worm dirt) compares to other materials. I hypothesized that worms would prefer living in moss, potting soil, and crushed leaves more than in worm dirt. To test my hypothesis, I placed twelve worms in each of five plastic containers, with both a control (worm dirt) and an experimental housing material (potting soil, washed playground sand, sphagnum moss, crushed leaves, and gravel). There were five different testing conditions. After leaving my containers covered and in a dark room for twenty-four hours, I opened each container and recorded the number of worms living in each side of the five containers. I found that worms preferred sphagnum moss and crushed leaves more than worm dirt. Surprisingly, I ended up rejecting my hypothesis that worms would prefer potting soil more than worm dirt. All twelve worms went to the worm dirt instead of the potting soil. I found it interesting that in every case, the twelve worms were in almost total agreement about their housing choices. As a result of this project, I can conclude that worms strongly prefer some housing materials more than others. I would recommend using moss or crushed leaves as a worm housing material to anyone considering building their own worm farm.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1610) Bockage?

Have you ever had bad internet connection and can’t figure out why? This science fair project is about what materials can negatively affect the performance of the internet signal so you can take out that material from where it will interfere with your signal.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1612) Thar She Throws!

I tested "what length of a trebuchet arm will have the greatest throwing distance?". I constructed a trebuchet and three replaceable arm with lengths of 22", 23", and 24". I threw a 20 gram nut as a projectile with each arm 15 times and recorded the distance thrown. I found the averages and which arm had the greatest throwing distance; it was the 24" arm. I also mathematically found the potential energy and the distance the trebuchet could have thrown, along with why we did not get that distance.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1615) Get Fit!

My topic is heart rate. I wanted to know what exercises effect heart rate the most. Three different exercises were tested on one person. There were three 30 second trials for each exercise. I thought that jump roping would bring the heart rate up the most. Jump roping is considered intense activity which brings heart rate up more than other types of exercises such as strength training. It is important to increase your heart rate when exercising because it helps strengthen your heart to pump blood more efficiently and keep you healthy.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1616) Does Peppermint Have A Cooling Effect?

Have you ever noticed that chewing peppermint gum makes your mouth feel cooler or using peppermint chapstick makes your lips cold? I wanted to know if peppermint has a cooling effect. I added peppermint extract in hot water to test if it would cool water faster than plain hot water.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1617) Which Brand Blows The Biggest Bubble?

For my experiment I want to determine what brand of bubblegum blows the largest bubble. I used a variety of participants and had them chew nine different gums. They had to chew for 5 minutes to get most of the sugar out.Each person had to blow or attempt to blow five bubbles per each gum. I measured and recorded their data. The gums had a variety of textures and flavors from high sugary ones to those that had sugar substitutes. The research I have done on gum base to include Elastomers, resins, plasticizers, fillers and antioxidants made an impact on each different gum. In terms of participant enjoyment the softer and more flavorful gum always was favored. I charted and analyzed the information and found that Hubba Bubba was the winner. I learned that the larger the piece of gum and the ones with the most sugar were the favorites and blew the largest bubbles. If I were to further this project I would like to explore more about the sugar substitutes to determine if they really do have cancer causing ingredients and could be potentially harmful. I enjoyed this project and will enjoy knowing the new information I have gained on blowing bubbles and what gum is made of!

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1621) Bristle Bots

Have you heard of Hexbug® Nanos? Well I made my own for the science fair I decide to see which brush made the bots go fastest. I measured by seconds.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1625) Brand Wars

I surveyed five families to see if they purchased economy-band or name-brand cereal and why. I then gave every member of each family a taste test to see whether they preferred the taste of economy-brand or name-brand cereal. My results were surprising to the shopper in each family!

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1626) Will A Driver Make A Full Stop At A Stop Sign?

I was interested in whether drivers will stop at a stop sign. When I began I thought at least 50% of drivers would stop. My dad and I sat in his car in a parking lot near a stop sign and counted the cars that passed and the ones that stopped over the course of three days. On the first two trials only 16.7% of the drivers stopped. On the trial 20% stopped. On 1/15/15 in San Francisco, CA we conducted the same experiment and 12.8% stopped. I created a survey that asked if people would make a full stop at a stop sign. The results showed that 94.4% of the people said they would stop. My conclusion is that most people say that they will stop at a stop sign but do not.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1627) Energized Batteries

Which brand of battery lasts longest--Duracell, Energizer, or Rayovac? I wanted to test the life of each type under ideal conditions using a small LED bulb that matches the battery (a 1.5volt 25ma light). I also wanted to know if storing the battery in the freezer would make it last longer. My hypothesis was that Duracell and Energizer would be about the same for longevity and that the batteries stored in the freezer would last longer still. After running 6 independent tests I can conclude that Duracell lasts the longest. My freezer tests were inconclusive because I didn't get consistent results. But it is clear that under ideal conditions Duracell lasts the longest between these 3 brands of battery.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1628) Stop, Roll & Go: Gender & Stop Sign Behavior

In observing men and women at a 4-way stop sign, will more men or women arrive at a full stop, a rolling stop or not stop at all? Further, what effect, if any, will a flashing 4-way stop sign have on each of the above?

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1630) Does Temparature Affect The Way Food Tastes

the title of my project is does temperature affect the way food tastes I hypothesized that temperature will affect the way food tastes I asked people to taste foods at different temperatures

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-2631) House Color Vs Carbon Footprint

Our project was about if the color of your house reduces your energy footprint. So how we tested it with oatmeal boxes by painting three of them black, gray, white. We put the three under a heat lamp and took the temperature of the boxes every 10 minutes. We found the white box had the most consistent and lowest temperature.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-2632) Nanotechnology

In our experiment we studied which nanostructures will hold the most weight (pennies). Nanostructures are very small but very strong and structurally safe. We created paper models to represent each nanostructure. The cube represent a diamond, the rolls represent carbon tubes and the flat paper is a model of graphite.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-2634) Taste Perception

We started with 3 jugs of apple juice and put red food coloring in one, green in one, and left the 3rd one the regular color. We then tested 31 people to see if the color of apple juice made them think it was a different flavor then it really was.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-2635) H2 Uh Oh

Many third world countries do not have access to clean drinking water. In countries such as Africa and Haiti women and children spend 200 million hours a year getting clean water. Many children die from illnesses due to unsafe water such as cholera and dysentery.
Using a column filtration system, we will examine different filtration methods to find the best way to remove visible particulates and to improve the clarity of contaminated water.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1639) Are There Ringtones That Adults Cannot Hear?

My science fair project is about the "age of your ears" and is the age due to real age or due to damage to your ears at an earlier age than is expected for normal hearing loss? I was interested to know how "old" (what maximum frequency) most parent aged adults could hear to see if there were ringtones for phones at those frequencies or higher that they could not hear. I had to learn about how the ear works and what a hertz is. I then found a free hearing test and tested 21 people three times each and got the average hertz they could hear. I Then graphed it using excel and noticed a steep drop in the ability of adults to hear past a certain range in hertz. My next step was to research ringtones at those high frequencies. I then retested the people that could not hear at high frequencies with the ringtones also at high frequencies. In conclusion there are ring tones that many adults cannot hear.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1641) Does Expectation Effect Taste

First I decided what my project was going to be. I then consulted with and expert to make sure that my question was reasonable and not a waste of time. After that I wrote my hypothesis. Then I did my research and figured out the items that I would need for my project. I then purchased the items that I would need and called those who I believed would be willing to do my test. I made my form and scheduled times that I could come to others houses. I did my test on around 15 people. I asked them to fill out the test sheet in the correct manor. I then gathered up the sheets and tallied up my results according to age group. I made graphs and pie charts to show my results. I put together my poster board and presented. The short answer is that expectation does effect taste.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-2644) Catching Zzzzzz's In Science

The goal of our project was to find out if the use of electronic media prior to sleep had any effect on sleep quality. We accomplished our goal by seeking out willing adult participants, asking them to participate in a specific week-long sleep regimen, and polling them daily to determine their level of sleepiness. We then averaged their sleep quality scores and compared the averages from the times electronics were used before bed and the times no electronics were used.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1645) Do The Eyes Or Ears Have It?

In this project I investigate whether people have better visual memory or better auditory memory.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1647) Heartburn And Antacids

My project was to see if you add simethicone and TUMS® to gastric acid if it will increase the pH levels of gastric acid. I first tested just TUMS®, then TUMS® along with simethicone. The one with simethicone increased the pH level faster than the one with TUMS® alone until it reached a pH of 6 and then there was no difference.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1648) Swim Caps And Swim Times

Swim times were measured using no cap, lycra cap, silicone cap, and latex cap. Two swimmers were timed 3 times with each cap. The average times for each swimmer with each cap was calculated. The results showed that the swimmers wearing the lycra swim cap
had faster times on average.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1649) Hot Vs Coldmr

what are the extreme effects of a hot golf ball vs the extreme effects of a frozen golf ball and for kicks i did a room temp golf ball also to see which would bounce higher

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1651) Bridge Failure

Constructed three types of bridge systems using the same material for each, balsa wood and tooth picks. Each bridge was then placed in a situation where the two ends were supported and the center was spanning an opening. Each bridge was then loaded by suspending an empty pot at the center. Single batteries were added, one at a time until failure.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-3655) The Nose Knows

The average person is born with the five senses. Without these basic senses we would not be able to survive in humanity. We decided to test if a person could still function and be able to identify one of the basic function in life, eating, without using any senses, but the nose. Our purpose was to see exactly how powerful smelling is to our senses.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-3656) Second Hand Smoke

The purpose in doing this project is to test to see if second hand smoke does in fact affect a person’s health. Many students at Escalante have someone in there home that smokes. We wanted to determine whether or not their family members choice to smoke in their home affects the students lung capacity or ability to breathe.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1657) Baseball:In The Wind

The purpose of this experiment is to figure out the relationship between wind velocity and its effects on the direction a baseball travels. The problem is baseball games are not always played in the same kind of weather. When a player throws or hits a baseball, the wind may push the ball in the direction it is blowing. Research shows that weather can affect a ball game, but understanding its effects is difficult. The wind is going different directions always. In this experiment, three baseball players threw a baseball at a target 10 times in 2 different instances. In the first instance the players threw the ball 46 feet towards the target, with no wind. In the second instance, the players each threw at the target with a fan blowing from left to right to create a cross breeze. While the players didn’t throw perfectly in either instance, the wind from the fan did seem to have an effect on the flight of the baseball, because the ball averaged hitting further to the right of the target by about 5 inches on throws with the fan blowing as opposed to those with the fan not blowing. The ball hit the target about 3 inches higher with the fan blowing. This project proved that wind from a high-speed fan does affect the flight of a thrown baseball. However, measuring the effects of wind on a baseball is an inexact science because studying the wind is an inexact science.

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1660) The Power Of The Winds

Different windmill blades
Which creates more electricity?
The purpose of this project is to see which type of windmill blades will create more electricity. I did this project because I am interested in clean energy sources.
My hypothesis was that the medium size blades would create the most electricity. What I did to test this was that I made five different blade types. The control was a 120-volt box fan. It had three speeds low, medium and high. To get my readings, I got a multi meter to see how much electricity each blade would create. We tested each blade on all three settings to get our readings. We tested each one about 5 to 10 seconds so it wouldn’t break.
The blade we named “wood” created got the biggest reading. “Medium” placed 2nd, “large” placed 3rd, “cup 2” placed 4th, and “cup 1” placed 5th. Wood is first because the reading when we put the control on high wind is 0.16 volts, which is higher than all of the other readings. Medium is 2nd because on the readings we got for it on high wind is 0.06 volts and is higher than all the other readings except wood. Large is 3rd because on high wind speed It got 0.05 volts which is higher than all the other readings except wood and medium. So my conclusion is that the wood blades made more electricity than all the others.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1661) Rock That Test

I wanted to know if different types of music affects your concentration. I wanted to do this because everyday I see my older sisters listening to their music while they are doing homework or studying. I decided to make a test that would require some concentration for the students in my 6th grade. The first class I gave the test to, I played a rock song while they tested. The next class I tested, I played a classical song while they took the test. The last class, I did not play any music while they took the test. I found that the listening to classical music helps with concentration because the class I tested with the classical music had the best results on the test. The class that took the test while listening to rock music had the worst results. I learned that when you need to concentrate on something, you should listen to classical music or no music at all. I think it would be interesting to test even more groups with a variety of types of music.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1662) Using The Power Of P H To Grow P Hantastic Radishes

My project's purpose was to see if different pH levels have any effect on the growth of plants. This is important because any way we can improve plant growth is useful for providing food to feed the world.
My hypothesis was that pH would make a difference and that plants watered with neutral water (pH 7) would grow better than those watered with acidic or alkaline water.
To test my hypothesis, I planted a total of 40 radish seeds. Every few days I watered ten seeds with pH 3 water, ten with pH 5 water, ten with pH 7 water, and ten with pH 10 water. Each day I measured the plants' growth and recorded their overall appearance.
After 17 days of growing the radishes, there was a significant difference in the average height among the different pH levels. The plants watered with pH 5 water grew the best, averaging 4.3 centimeters. The plants watered with pH 3 water grew the worst, averaging 1.5 centimeters. The plants watered with pH 7 and pH 10 were similar, averaging about 2.5 cm.
The results indicate that the level of pH in feed water does affect the growth of plants, so my hypothesis was partially correct. However, I was wrong because the experiment showed that the radishes grew best in slightly acidic water, not neutral.
This project suggests that it is important to consider the pH of feed water when trying to get plants to grow their best.

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1664) Organic Alternative Energy

My Science Fair project is about fruit batteries. I wanted to see if different types of fruit could power an L.E.D light bulb, how much current and voltage they made. I also tested the pH levels of the fruit using pH test paper. I believe the lemon has more acid than the apple, or tomato. Therefore, the lemon will produce the most energy
The materials I needed were: various pieces of fruit such as tomatoes, lemons, and apples, several short lengths of wire, an L.E.D light bulb, a copper and galvanized screw or nail for each piece of fruit and a digital multi-meter.
I followed these steps: I wrapped the wire around the end of one copper screw and another around a galvanized screw, then inserted them about an inch apart, I made sure not to push them all the way through, then I selected a milliamp setting on my multi-meter, and recorded my results, then I connected them to an L.E.D light bulb, to see if it could create enough energy to power it, then I recorded my results. I squeezed the juice of the fruit into three different containers, and dipped the pH paper into the juice and recorded my results.
Out of one apple, lemon, and tomato the tomato produced the most current. Surprisingly the pH level did not match the energy produced. None of the fruit could light up an L.E.D light bulb by themselves, so I connected them together in series and it would light up an L.E.D light bulb.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1665) Satellites And Gravity

My project was about how the launch speed of a satellite affects its orbiting altitude. My hypothesis was that a faster launch speed causes a higher orbital altitude.

In order to test this I constructed a physical model. Balls coated with paint were rolled down a tube onto an inclined paper at each of three different heights. I calculated the arc radius using the formula r = h/2 + w2/8h where: r = radius; h = height; and w = width. In this model tube distance represented launch speed, steel balls represented satellites, and arc radius represented orbit radius.

On each of three trials a longer tube distance resulted in bigger arc radius. My hypothesis was correct: a faster launch speed caused a higher orbital altitude.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1666) Longer Lasting Bubbles

My project will be about,what can I add to bubble solution to make it last longer?

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1667) Battle For The Sun: How Does Direction Effect Solar Power

We have always wanted to place solar panels on our roof as a more earth-friendly form of energy. Research suggests that the solar panels need to face south, but our house runs east to west, therefore, the south-facing slope has the smallest surface area. I wanted to see what effect the direction the solar panels were facing had on energy collection. On three different days, I recorded the volts with a multimeter as I faced the solar panel in the four cardinal directions. I repeated the experiment at three different times during those days. My conclusion was that the direction the solar panel faced had little impact on the amount of power collected. South facing was the best, but only by a small amount.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1668) Is Sensitivity Heightend On Your Dominant Or Non Dominant Hand?

Is sensitivity heightened on your dominant or non dominant
hand? I got 5 right and 5 left handed subjects. They put their
hands in ice water. They kept their hands in as long as they
could while being timed. My hypothesis is that your non dominant
hand will be more sensitive to ice water and will come out of the
water first. Why? Because everyone uses their dominant hand
more on occasion so their non dominant hand will not be as
My hypothesis was correct. According to my data the
Non Dominant hand is more sensitive to the cold.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1670) Project Earthquake

Background: Utah is due for a major earthquake and it is important to know which building materials are the strongest. The materials used to construct buildings help determine how it does in an earthquake. Wood is flexible and absorbs the energy. Concrete and brick are rigid and transfer the ground motion into the structure.
Hypothesis: If you use wood to build your house, then it will be the strongest in an earthquake, because wood distributes the force of an earthquake better than brick or concrete.
Methods: An earthquake simulator was constructed using a mini metal wrecking ball and a tub of water. Various building materials, including concrete, wood, and brick, were tested in the earthquake simulator. The change in water level when the building material was struck by the wrecking ball was measured four times for each building material. An average was calculated.
Results: The water rose the highest for the wood and the least for the brick.
Conclusion: The force of the wrecking ball was transferred from the wood to the water suggesting wood is the strongest building material. All of the force of the wrecking ball was absorbed by the brick making it the most likely to be damaged in an earthquake.
Discussion: My hypothesis that wood was the strongest was correct. One possible error was not controlling for weight. Other interesting questions might be to look at how a building's height and shape change how stable it is in an earthquake.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1671) Growing Grass

Finding the effect of different types of liquids on the growth of potted grass.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-3676) Apple Preservation

People should be able to save their apples so that they can eat fresh slices. We took two Gala apples and sliced them in half, so that we had a half for each preservation experiment. Then, we put the apples in the fridge for five days, and recorded everything that happened to them. The data that we collected showed that each day, the control got a lot more rotten, the Ziploc bag and the Ziploc container only got a little less fresh, and the tin foil was only a little less rotten each day than the control. However, a difficulty in our experiment was when we took the apples out of the fridge. The outside air might have affected the outcome. Another difficulty was when we were concluding our results. The two Ziploc products had almost the same results, and we had to determine which one was the freshest at the end of the five days through the pictures we took. Our concluding results were that the Ziploc plastic bag was the freshest by the end of the experiment, and the control was the least fresh. The tin foil didn't do very well, and was almost as bad as the control. The Ziploc container was almost as fresh as the bag, but the Ziploc bag was the most fresh. We found that out of these four preservation methods, the Ziploc plastic bag will keep an apple the most fresh.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-2677) The Pudding Trick

We asked if color changes taste mentally and it does. We took vanilla pudding and dyed half of it brown to make it look like chocolate pudding and tested 192 people and they liked the white better.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1678) Acne Who Knew?

I wanted to know about acne, so I popped five different kinds of pimples on my sister's face and wiped slides, donated by Hilcrest Junior High School, and examined the contents of each under a microscope to see if I could observe differences. My hypothesis was that I would be able to see the differences, and it was correct. I did some research on acne and printed out a diagram of the five types. I also developed pictures of the samples under magnification. The last thing I did was put everything on my board.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1679) Butter Shake It Up

My question was:Does temperature affect the making of butter? My hypothesis was it does and that the room temperature cream would form butter faster than the cold cream would. I tested 6 1/2 cup measurements of cream. 3 at room temperature and 3 at cold. I had to shake the buttermilk until it formed butter and we timed how long it took.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1680) What Brand Pops Best?

I wanted to prove that cheaper brands of popcorn left more un-popped kernels than more expensive brands of popcorn. So I popped 12 bags had 4 brands so I popped 3 bags a brand. And sorted the popped from the un-popped.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1681) Which Is Cleanest?

My parents bought some property that has part of Farmington Creek on it they told me not to drink any of the water from the creek.I wondered what people could do in places where there is not any clean water to drink.I looked up on to find what said would make it clean. The website said that you could filter the water, add a disinfectant,or boil the water.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1682) Types Of Firewood And Heat

The reason I did Firewood and heat is because I thought it would be interesting. I thought it would be interesting because there are all different types of wood and I wanted to see what types of wood burnt faster.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-2683) Gold Mine

For our science fair project we created a video game, it is fun to play and has 7 rooms. As you go from room to room each level gets harder. The character is turquoise and the enemy is red with purple hair. You go around the rooms and pick up coins and go to the next level. Our video game is played on the computer and is a maze video game.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-2684) Does The Color Of Hair Effect The Static? Electricity Of A Balloon

we were wondering hows hair would stick the best my moms with long black hair or my brothers with blond hair.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1685) Sound Waves

I had a question about sound waves. So I tested that. I used different materials to show how sound waves move through objects.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1686) How To Light An Led Light How To Light A Led Light With A Homemade Battery

I took four pieces of cardboard smaller than a penny and soaked it in lime juice. Then I took 5 penny's made after 1982, put one of the penny's head up with the cardboard soaked in lime juice put it on top of the penny. Then I repeated the process until I ran out of penny's. Then I took an LED light and attached it to the battery to see if it would light up.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1687) Predicting A Balls Flight Using Laws Of Motion

The flight of a ping pong ball from a catapult was compared to the general equation of free flight. The initial velocity of the ball leaving the catapult was found for each angle the catapult could be pulled back to. For each angle that the ball could be released at, a comparison of the predicted flight using the equations of motion was compared to the measurements. The conclusion is that the measured data does not match the predictions.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1688) Pictures And Short Term Memory

My idea for science fair was pictures and short term memory. My two pictures were a drawn picture and a photograph both showing multiple objects in them.

My hypothesis was that more students would remember the photograph because there were objects that you can see everyday. For my experiment, eleven students participated. I learned that my hypothesis was wrong. The students had remembered more about the drawn picture and not the photograph.

Looking back, it was really fun and interesting. I got to learn more about short term memory and how my brain works.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1689) The Big Thaw

My science fair project was to determine which method of defrosting chicken is the fastest. I wanted to figure out what is the fastest way to defrost chicken because adults always defrost chicken for dinner. They're often in a hurry so they need to know the fastest technique. I first did some research on methods to defrost chicken. I narrowed it down to three ways, which were on the counter, in the refrigerator, and submerging them in a bag of cold water. My hypothesis was that I predicted the bag in cold water would defrost the three chicken breasts the fastest. I ran into a few problems including thermometer use and water entering the bag. During my procedure, I tested the chicken temperatures every hour for four hours and I found out that my hypothesis was correct. The chicken breast sitting on the counter defrosted the second fastest and the chicken breasts in the refrigerator defrosted the slowest, although research taught me that it's the safest way because bacteria isn't able to grow. I thoroughly enjoyed my experiment and I feel like I learned a lot. I can't wait to use this useful information when I am a cook.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1690) Test Distress

Too much stress in people's lives can cause health issues if not reduced. This experiment was created to see if petting cats could reduce stress. A stress test was designed to increase stress levels in the test subjects. Test subjects were divided into three groups: no stress reduction activity, deep breathing, and cat petting. Heart rate and self reported stress levels were measured before and after the stress test and again after the stress reduction activity. Each subject experienced increased stress after the stress test and most showed reduced stress after stress reduction activities. However, the variability in the results did not allow us to answer our hypothesis.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1691) Do You Have Nerve?

For my project, I created a nerve meter. It is used for testing nerves on a patient. The nerve meter can also help you get focused. That is what my project is about.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-2692) Which Affects Your Grades Classical Or Pop Music?

This projects tests classical music and pop music on grades.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1693) Twist Of The Wrist

For my experiment I wanted to determine if water could move uphill.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-3697) Arthritis

We wanted to design a robot that would help arthritic people extend to grab objects. It was designed so that you clap and then it worked. We had to spend long hours working on programming this so that it would work and grab the objects just right. We also had to program it just right so that it would respond to clapping. We wanted it to be voice activated so you could speak into it and it did what you said, but after difficulties, we changed our plan so that you could clap and then it would work. We discovered it is very complicated to create a device that is light and works well to assist people with arthritis.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-2698) Brain On The Run

We hypothesized that if we do physical exercise before quizzes, then it will help us think faster, do school work more efficiently, and it will increase our brain power. We had sixth graders take a timed addition test. We then had the sixth graders perform a short exercise and take the same timed addition test. We recorded the time and accuracy of each test before and after exercise. We found it difficult to test different types of exercises. We found that each person improved in accuracy and time on their math quizzes. This could show that students perform better on math quizzes when they have exercised before taking the quiz. This could be applied in the real-world by changing how students take quizzes and tests.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1706) Antacids In Action

I tested which brand of antacid-Rolaids, Maalox, TUMS, Alka Seltzer, Zantac, or Prilosec-brought the pH of 20 mL of hydrochloric acid and 200 mL of water up the most in five minutes. I used litmus paper to test the before and after of the mixture, starting at about a 2. I followed the instructions on the antacid, for example, Maalox was a liquid, and Alka Seltzer had to be dissolved in water. Alka Seltzer did the best out of the six brands.

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1707) Wings Of Shape

My project is called the wings of shape. I have always been interested in airplanes and like doing experiments involving them. I wanted to know if a plane with angled wings would fly for a longer time than a plane with straight wings. To perform my experiment I had to first gather information about how planes fly. To test my hypothesis I built a rubber band airplane using tissue paper and basal wood. After building the plane I took it to a gym to test it. After completing the test flights for both sets of wings I averaged the data and compared the results. I found that when the fuselage had the angled wings attached it flew for a longer time when the straight wings were attached. The average flight time with the angle wings was 4.806 seconds and average flight time with the straight wings was 3.732 seconds. I was surprised that when the fuselage had the straight wings attached it flew longer than I expected, however, it never flew as smoothly as when the fuselage had the angle wings attached. In the air the straight wings turns were tighter and faster. When the angle wings were attached it flew more smoothly and pulled out of dives more easily. If I was building an airplane I would want the wings to be aerodynamic not just straight.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1708) Save The Sea

I wanted to find the best way to remove oil from water after an oil spill. I researched the oil spill clean up process and found three different methods of testing this; using a sorbent, a skimmer, and a dispersant. The sorbent removed the most oil with an average of 197.5 mL. The skimmer worked second best removing an average of 133.75 mL of oil. The dispersant was not very effective and i had to read the results in a different way than the other tests.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1709) The Best Design For A Wind Turbine

I wanted to find out which design of wind turbine would produce the most volts of electricity. I made three different designs of wind turbines and put them in front of 2 fans. When the fans were turned on it made the blades spin, which were connected to the motor. Therefore the motor produced electricity. During each test I measured the electricity by using a voltage meter. I video taped the meter and then watched the footage for more accurate results.

I found out that the VAWT Upright is the best design for producing electricity. The HAWT is a close second. the VAWT Cupped design generated a significantly lower voltage compared to the other two designs.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1710) Buckle Your Best

Each day in America 3 children die and another 260 are severely injured from not buckling the seat belts correctly. Our project finds a way to alert when a child deliberately buckles the belt incorrectly. It uses a simple electric circuit made with conductive paint to alert incorrect buckling. This can be customized to any car/car seat. Also, instead of LED lights, sound or any other alerting mechanism may be used.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1711) The Icy Window Dilemma

My project asked the question: Can household items clear icy car windows? I tested 6 different household liquids (water, saltwater, ammonia, distilled white vinegar, isopropyl alcohol and diluted dish soap) to see if any of them melt ice on glass. My hypothesis was that isopropyl alcohol would work best as a de-icer because it has the lowest freezing point of all the liquids tested. To test my hypothesis, I froze 6 sheets of glass in the freezer by spraying them with cold tap water every 30 minutes in 4 rotations. I put each liquid in a separate plastic cup and placed them over ice to try and get them similar temperatures. After the temperatures were recorded, I took a piece of glass out of the freezer, placed it in a plastic holder, and took a “before” picture. I used a syringe to squirt 1 mL of a liquid on the top-middle of the glass. I let it sit for 10 seconds and then took another picture before removing the glass. I repeated this process with all 6 liquids in 5 separate trials and measured the success of each liquid by the way it looked when I compared the before and after photos and felt when I ran my finger over the melted line. Aside from one trial where the ice seemed thin, the results were consistent. My hypothesis was partially correct. Isopropyl alcohol and saltwater both did the best, followed by vinegar, ammonia, dish soap, and water.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1715) Sizzle, Sizzle

The purpose of this experiment was to see if a leaf log is better than a wood log. In other words, it was to find out if a compressed leaf log burns hotter, faster and longer than a wood log so that wood could be replaced with a leaf log, since it’s better for the environment. This experiment was set up so that the leaf log and the wood log could be put against each other. The hypothesis was that the leaf log would burn hotter, faster, and longer, because it is more burnable. The experiment was set up so that a grill was above the logs and buckets were on the grills, and the temperature of the water was taken. The leaf log burned faster and hotter, but the wood burned longer. The hypothesis was two thirds correct, but for further work, the experiment should have been prepared more.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1716) Heat Loss

A study in which metal losses heat the fastest.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1718) Tee It High And Let It Fly

I wanted to know if the height of the tee compared to the driver affected how far the ball would travel in the air and overall with the roll. I put the ball at three levels: level with ground, ball level with middle of driver clubface, and ball centered at top of driver clubface. I then hit ten shots at each level and compared distances to see which height gave me the farthest drives.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1721) Solar Ovens: Do They Work

I wanted to experiment with a solar oven to find out if it would work as well on a cold and cloudy day as it would on a cold and sunny day. I decided that I would try to melt 2 Tablespoons of butter on three separate days. I put my solar oven outside at three different times and recorded the inside temperature of the solar oven and what was happening to the butter every 15 minutes for an hour. On the cold and cloudy day, nothing happened to the butter. However, on the cold and sunny days, the butter melted quickly. I was amazed at how hot the solar oven was able to get on the cold and sunny days. I do ask myself the question of "if I made a solar oven that was smaller, would it get hotter?" Or, "if I tested my solar oven in the summer months, would it get hot enough to make cookies in it?" These are questions that I look forward to experimenting with in the future. For now, I realize that melting butter in my solar oven works really good on a cold and sunny day, but not so good on a cold and cloudy day.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1722) How To Make An Aircraft Invisible To Radar

I studied how the material and shape of an object affect the amount of light reflected from the object. I built a dark enclosure to measure the amount light reflected from objects of different materials and shapes to determine which combinations have the least amount of light reflection, which therefore make the object "invisible" to the detector. What I learned is that moderately to highly reflective objects need to have angles to reflect or scatter light away from the detector, while absorbing objects have fewer requirements on shape.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1724) Food Producing Power

The purpose of my experiment was to find out which fruit or vegetable will produce the most methane during the decomposition process. The procedure involved making purees of three different types of produce then putting them in bottles with water and balloons on top. My hypothesis was that of the three (onions, blueberries, and lettuce), the onions would produce the most methane. Letting them start their decomposition process, I let each one decompose for one week. During that time I recorded the amount of methane that was produced in each bottle by measuring each balloon.

My results were that the onions on average produced the most methane out of all the three during their decomposition process. My data also concludes that even though the onions got off to a slow start, after a few days they took off and produced the most methane in the end. Then, out of these three, the methane from the onions decomposed would be the best to use as a source of energy.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1730) The Mesh Effect

I tested 3 different types of Lacrosse mesh, hard mesh, normal mesh and waxed mesh to see if the type of mesh affected shot speed. I took 5 overhand, 5 underhand and 5 sidearm shots and repeated this for each type of mesh. I recorded the speed of the shots and found the average. I compared the averages on a bar graph.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1731) Natures Mark Markers From Plant Pigments

For my project, I simply wanted to have fun, learn, be surrounded by plants, and make something. My project was to learn about how plants get their color, or about plant pigments. I wanted to know what type of pigment, or marker, was better, organic or manufactured. I also wanted to know what plant or spice, out of a select few, would give me the most, and the least, pigment. I made my hypothesizes by using common knowledge and logic. My hypothesizes were, one, manufactured pigments are better because companies make their products as good as possible, or totally lame and untrustworthy, or a total rip-off. My second hypotheses was that turmeric would give me the most and brightest pigment because turmeric is a bright yellow powder, and all it would only have to dissolve in the water, and the weakest pigment would come from the red onion because, onions are mostly white or whitish, and only the skin was red.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1732) Ammonia: A Fishy Problem

Fish waste produces ammonia, a substance fatal to fish even in low concentrations. In a healthy, established aquarium, nitrifying bacteria will break the ammonia into nitrites, then into nitrates, which are much safer than ammonia. In a new aquarium, it takes time for these bacteria to create a strong enough colony that it can break down the ammonia. This process can be sped up by adding bacteria from an established tank. I wanted to find out where these bacteria were in the highest concentration. To do this, I added various materials from an established aquarium to several jars of an ammonia solution, and then tested and recorded the ammonia levels in each jar daily for two weeks. By seeing which one had the fastest ammonia reduction I was able to tell which material had the most ammonia-fighting bacteria. Since the mulm did better than any other jar with the same amount of material, I concluded that the mulm had the highest concentration of ammonia-fighting bacteria.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1737) Helium Balloons In The Cold

My brother has a January birthday. Each year when we get balloons to celebrate, I wonder if leaving them out on the front porch will decrease our time of balloon pleasure because they sometimes shrivel up before the night is over. So this year I decided to scientifically discover if leaving them out in the cold is cutting our celebration short or not.

MY QUESTION IS: How do cold temperatures affect helium balloons?

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1738) Bridge Design Which Design Of Bridge Can Hold The Most Amount Of Weight.

The purpose of my science fair project was to see which design of bridge holds the most amount of weight. My hypothesis was the beam bridge would hold the most weight. My research included several websites on the internet. The independent variable was the different designs of bridges. The dependent variable in my experiment was the amount of weight it took for the bridges to collapse. The materials used to make the bridge and the weights used to test them were constant. The results of the experiment were, the trestle bridge held the most weight.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1739) Does It Matter What Kind Of Liquid You Take With Your Medication.

Wondered what type of liquids medicines would dissolve fastest. Chose 4 household medicines 1. allergy medicine, 2. ibuprofen, 3. gas medicine, 4. daily vitamin. Chose 7 liquids 1. tap water, 2. bottled water, 3. apple juice, 4. cranberry juice, 5. coca cola, 6. sprite, 7. vinegar. Put 1/4 cup of each fluid in clear cups and let all fluids set to room temperature. Labeled and inverted medications and timed and noted on data sheet each dissolved pill and also wrote down visual observations. Hypothesis was carbonated soda would be acidic and dissolve pills the fastest. Data showed bottled water to be the best liquid for the pills to dissolve in.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1740) Brain Vs. Tastebud

I wanted to find out if someone's perceived taste of food changes upon it's appearance. I taste tested people blindfolded and not blindfolded to see what tasted better-food prepared normally, or food prepared to look different than it would normally.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1747) Climatic Changes To Crustaceans

The purpose of this project was to determine if global warming would have an effect on small crustaceans by raising the preferred water temperature of an Amano shrimp. Three Amano shrimp were put in three separate self sustaining ecosystems containing the same amount of freshwater, plants, snails, rocks, shells and sludge. The first jar was at 80F, or 6F above the Amano shrimp’s prefered temperature. The second jar was at 74F, which is the Amano shrimp’s prefered temperature. The third jar was at 6F below the prefered temperature at 68F. I hypothesized that higher temperatures would result in a healthier shrimp. I defined healthy as higher activity levels (number of body lengths the shrimp moved in two minutes), faster growth (shrimp measured every two weeks), and better appearance (observation of the shrimp’s physical condition). At the end of the experiment, I concluded that shrimp in the highest temperature was not the healthiest. The shrimp at the lowest temperature was the healthiest. In terms of activity level, the shrimp at the highest temperature was the most active, and the second most active was the shrimp at the lowest temperature. The shrimp at the lowest temperature also looked the healthiest and grew the most out of the three shrimp. This experiment shows that global warming could have a negative effect on shrimp health.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-3750) Cup Of Dirt

Question: What is the effect of different oils on soil moisture?

Hypothesis: Olive oil will keep the water in the soil longer.

1. Fill 20 cups with 3 oz. of soil each.

2. Add 1 oz. of water to each cup

3. Spray olive oil on the surface of 5 cups.

4. Spray canola oil on the surface of 5 cups.

5. Spray vegetable oil on the surface of 5 cups.

6. Leave 5 cups with no oil for the control group.

7. Weigh and average each set of cups daily for 7 days.

All groups had water that evaporated. The control group with just water lost the most water. The oil groups all had about the same amount of water evaporate.

Oil does help keep water in the soil. All of the oils worked about the same. We were right about the oil working but we were wrong about olive oil being better than the other oils.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1751) The Magic Of Nature

The purpose of my project is to learn about the numerical pattern called the Fibonacci Sequence and to look for evidence of its mathematical pattern in nature. My question is what part of a fruit or vegetable plant shows the Fibonacci Sequence the most? My hypothesis is if I cut open the core of a fruit or vegetable plant then I will find the pattern of the Fibonacci Sequence because this seems to me to be the place where it would be shown the most. My experiment involved testing a total of 22 fruits and vegetables to see which ones showed this pattern. I looked at the leaves and the core of the plant to see if they showed the Fibonacci sequence. My hypothesis was wrong. I thought the core would show the Fibonacci Sequence the most but it was the leaves. An interesting thing that I learned was that a potato core shows the Fibonacci sequence. I also learned that a citrus fruits core does not show the Fibonacci Sequence. I would like to test other varieties of fruits and vegetables to see if they showed the Fibonacci Sequence. In my research I learned that this pattern is found everywhere in nature; leaves, fruits and vegetables, shells, pinecones, galaxies, flowers, breeding of rabbits, and the curl of ocean waves. I also learned that the Fibonacci Sequence is used in architecture, art and technology. It is pleasing to the eye and must have structural purpose.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1756) Adding Fuel To The Fire

The burning duration of five household liquids was recorded to assess which would be the best choice for fuel in an emergency. Nail polish remover and rubbing alcohol burned much more quickly than the three oils tested. Sesame oil, soybean oil, and olive oil burned for approximately equal times. Olive oil burned much more clean, making it the best choice for household emergency use.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1759) How Does Music Affect A Person's Blood Pressure?

Music has been proven scientifically to have beneficial effects both mentally and physically. Music has shown to reduce blood pressure, change heart and respiration rate, relieve stress and muscle tension. How Does Music Affect A Person's Blood Pressure? This is the purpose of this experiment.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1760) How Salt Affects Water

My project is about how salt affects water. I boiled water in two separate pots and put salt in one pot, I did this three times but increased the amount of water and salt. I also froze water with salt in one side and normal water in the other. The reason why I wanted to do this is because my mom would always boil her eggs my putting salt in the water and then boiling it, she would do the same with pasta. The reason why I wanted to freeze water with salt is because when it snowed, they would always put salt on the road so it would melt the snow faster. As I did my experiments and researched I found that salt stops the freezing process and boiling the water with salt causes the boiling point to go up so that's why it boiled faster. I eventually found that half of my hypothesis was correct because I thought it would boil faster but I thought the salt ice cubes would melt slower.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-2761) Hot Or Not

We were wondering if a magnet would attract more items depending on the magnets temperature. We heated a magnet and picked up paperclips to count how many it attracted. We also did it with a cooled magnet and a room temperature magnet. We found that a heated magnet attracted more paper clips than a cold one.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1763) Sugary Sweet

My project is about the amount of glucose in the foods and drinks in our world today. In this project, I tested a group of foods with glucose strips and liquids with a complicated procedure using a hydrometer and mathematical calculations. I wanted to see how much I know about the amounts of glucose in foods and drinks. I hope you enjoy my presentation and experience.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1764) When Will My Wing Stall?

Built a home wind tunnel to test the angle when an airfoil would stall.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1767) Got Plastic

My project answers the question, how much vinegar do you need to create a chemical reaction to change milk into a plastic substance. Milk has a protein that when mixed with an acid will thicken and eventually creating a rubbery type substance. I tested 4 different amounts of vinegar to milk to see created the densest plastic.

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1770) Which Battery Brand Lasts The Longest

My project question was to find out which battery lasts the longest. I tested Duracell, Energizer, Sunbeam, and Panasonic battery brands in a video camera and recorded the minutes until the battery had lowlife.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1773) What Things, When Dissolved Into Water, Conduct Electricity The Best?

I wanted to find out what things, when dissolved into water, conducts electricity the best. I formed a hypothesis based on research that out of baking soda, rubbing alcohol, sugar, salt, and vinegar that salt would do the best. After conducting three tests, I came to the conclusion that my hypothesis was correct. Salt was the best at conducting electricity.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-2784) Brainstorm

To see if bilingual speakers can go faster on the Stroop test because they know how to block brain confusion already by speaking two languages. To also see if non-readers will go faster on the Stroop test because their brain won't get confused by the words.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1785) Toothpick Bridges

The experiment is to find the best adhesive to make a bridge out of toothpicks from. Different glues, sticky candy, and tape were used to make bridges of each adhesive. Then weights were slowly added to a hanging box from the center of each bridge until it broke.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1786) Interests Of A Fly

Have you ever wondered where fruit flies got their name from? In my project I put different types of fruit out on a table. I wanted to see witch type flies liked best. I assumed that they were named after them liking fruit. When I tried this experiment I tested if fruit flies liked high acidic or low acidic fruits best.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1788) Protists In Your Pond

After learning about protists in my sixth grade science class I wondered what kind of protists would be in our local waters. I also wondered what kinds of conditions would be best for their growth. I gathered water from a still water pond, moving stream and frozen inlet. I let them grow in light, indirect light and dark. I hypothesized that the dark still water would have the most protists. I thought this might be true because protists like water and can grow in less than ideal conditions.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1792) Mirror Writing And Brain Function

I questioned whether or not the brain would have an easier time (measured by the length of time needed to complete the task) tracing shapes while looking in a mirror with the dominant or non-dominant hand. My hypothesis was that since the left side of your body is controlled by the right side of the brain and vice versa it would be more difficult to trace the shapes in the mirror with your dominant hand.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1799) Why Does The Ocean Flow? A Look At Ocean Currents

There are 21 major ocean currents around the world. These deep water currents are affected by temperature and salinity. If the current starts near the equator it is warm; if it starts near the poles it is cold. Deep currents start under the ice floes (which are large sheets of floating ice). This cold, heavy saltwater sinks to the bottom, which causes the water below to be pushed toward the equator. The shorelines and Earth's rotation determine the direction of the current. The currents work in a conveyer belt way to help circulate heat, oxygen, and food to all the oceans. In this experiment I created a model of an ocean current. My hypothesis was that a bigger temperature gradient would create a faster velocity. I created my model in a 9x13 glass pan. I used a dried herb in vegetable oil to see the flow of the current. I used candles to heat the oil at the center of the tray. I added more candles to increase the temperature. I measured the temperature gradient from the center to the edge of the tray and I measured the time it took for the herb to travel a set distance, then I calculated the velocity of the herb. I found that an increase of heat caused the velocity to increase. This proved my hypothesis.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1800) Styrofoam Repolymerization As An Insulator

My project involves dissolving styrofoam in three different solvents, applying it to ABS tubing and measuring temperature loss to see if the repolymerized styrofoam made a protective coating that was good enough to stop heat loss in a significant way.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-2806) Filthy Hands

We wanted to find out which household disinfectant cleaned hands the best.We tested 70% alcohol based hand sanitizer, Palmolive dish soap, and Irish Spring bar soap. We tested the sanitizer and the Palmolive soap directly. We made a bar soap solution by cutting off chunks of the bar, and mixing it with water to create a liquid solution. We used organisms isolated from our hands and grew them up in media. We tested the sanitizers using a modified zone of inhibition test. In conclusion, our hypothesis was wrong. We hypothesized that the hand sanitizer would work the best, but the Palmolive dish soap worked the best.The hand sanitizer and the bar soap solution could have evaporated, or could have soaked into the agar in the plates. A way to test even further would be for us to do a liquid to liquid matrix test.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-2807) Electromagnetism Strength

We think that if the wire is thicker more electricity can flow through, therefore making a more powerful electromagnet. We conducted 4 experiments to find out what would happen.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-2809) Fizz Pop

Comparing the different levels of carbonic Acid in a selection of Soda drinks and the caustic effect of the soda on tarnished pennies.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1812) How Do Different P H Levels Affect The Cells Of A Vegetable?

The purpose of this experiment was to see if different pH levels would affect the cells of a vegetable (onion). This experiment was to show how the vegetable would react when placed in different pH levels, and if the cell structure would change when the vegetable was not in its normal pH level.
This impacts the world because it affects our nutrition and health. A difference in pH can affect the nutrition in a food. When the pH level changes, so does the cell. Having a balanced pH level helps the organism stay healthy. This can change the nutrients we get from food.
I created the pH buffers and then prepared 15 slides for each pH level with an onion epidermis. I put a drop of the pH buffer onto the epidermis. I waited 1 hour for the pH buffer to make changes. Then I observed the changes of the cells under a microscope.
pH definitely affected the cells of the vegetable. It changed many parts of the cells. Some noticeable changes were turgid cells, shrinking cells, destroyed or condensed nucleus, destroyed cell walls, and cell disorder. The pH levels of 1 and 14 affected the cells the most. They made many changes to the cells. pH 3 and 11 also made many changes. As I got closer to the base with pH 5 and 9, there were less changes. pH 7 had no effect on the vegetables as it was the most balanced.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-2813) Sun Protection In Our Clothes

We evaluated if different characteristics of fabric affect the ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches our body through our clothes. Exposure to strong UV rays, particularly UVB rays, emitted by the sun can cause skin cancer which starts in the top layer of skin and can progress further if left unchecked. Our project tested the quantity of UV rays reaching our skin through different types of fabrics. In addition, we wanted to know if we get our money's worth buying expensive ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) clothes. We tested a variety of fabrics that had no UPF rating to 50 UPF ratings. Also, different material content (i.e. nylon, cotton, bamboo),tight weaves, loose weaves and various colors. We created a circuit using a UV sensor that measured the suns intensity and converted it to a voltage reading. For each fabric tested we obtained a controlled value of full sun intensity to the sensor and then a the measurement of the UV rays emitted through the fabric to the sensor. We performed this test four times on each fabric and determined the percentage of UV rays emitted through each fabric type. Our results were inconclusive in terms of determining which fabric provided the best protection. All the fabrics we tested provided 87%-96% of UPF protection, which is good. However, based on our data we can not justify purchasing special UPF rated clothing since its data was no better than those with no UPF ratings.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1815) Pendulum Properties

Can a person without assistance pump hard enough to get a swing to make a full revolution over the bar? Further research, including the realization that we did not have a way to measure the "push"or force, required revising the question. "How does length of chain and mass affect the frequency at which an object swings?"

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1817) Get The Lead Out!

Get The Lead Out involved testing 5 different locations where children live and play in the area of the Bingham Canyon Mine for lead in the soil. This is because lead is particularly dangerous for children and they are especially vulnerable to lead poisoning. I tested a walking trail, a park, a church, a school, and a new subdivision being built. I took the 3 samples that tested positive for lead in my home testing kit, into ALS Environmental Lab for exact numbers of milligrams of lead per kilograms of soil. The school and the park contained lead in their soil, but according to EPA standards, were not at dangerous levels. The other one that went to the lab, the 1921 Copperton Church, had the highest level at 440 mg/kg, too high for the EPA's standard for children's areas. To further investigate, I met with two environmental scientists at the Utah Department Of Environmental Quality. They indicated that my lead levels for the specific site of Kennecott Copper/Bingham Canyon Mine were not a concern and were safe for all areas, including houses, playgrounds, and schools. The acceptable level for just the Kennecott land is 500 mg/kg instead of the EPA safe standard of 400. The reason is because we live in the mountains where the soil is rich with minerals and metals (that is why there is a mine there). The lead also becomes concentrated due to the waste run-off from the mining process and Kennecott has previously done clean-up.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1819) The Effects Of Soda On Tooth Enamel

Does soda really damage your teeth? If so, which soda stains the most and which soda erodes tooth enamel the most.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-2821) Strong Bridges

Bridges-we often build them to cover vast distances over water or even canyons. They have to be strong and safe enough to carry cars, trains, and trucks for many years. Most of us don't think much about the bridges we use,but engineers who design them do. Our hypothesis is that a bridge's design affects how much weight it can support. We thought that a suspension bridge would hold the most weight because it has the most structures(cables and towers)supporting it. We were both right and wrong! The design of the bridges we built definitely affected how much weight they held, but the suspension bridge was not the strongest!
We used 3 different bridge designs-truss beam, arch, and suspension. The arch bridge held the most weight, the truss beam held the next largest amount, and the suspension bridge held the least. We used the same glue and popsicle sticks in the construction of each bridge and built two sets each bridge design. The design (shape) of the bridge is definitely what made it able to support the weight we placed on it. The arch shape was the most sturdy and had a strong base at its center to withstand more weight on it.
If we did this experiment again, we would build several more bridges to conduct more trials. We would also design a more accurate arch bridge as the design we used (using instructions from the internet) was not an accurate arch bridge as used in real life bridge design.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1822) Eggs Not Included

My project is about finding a substitute for eggs in a cookie recipe. I discovered eggs are mostly a binding agent in a cookie recipe. I researched what other foods are binding agents too. I decided to test three of them: peanut butter, applesauce and cornstarch.
My hypothesis is: If I wanted to make cookies without using eggs then I could use peanut butter, applesauce, or cornstarch instead. The cookies will still taste good because these substitutes are binding agents.
Next, I made 4 different batches of cookies. The first batch I used eggs like the recipe says. The second batch I used peanut butter instead of eggs. The third batch I used applesauce instead of eggs. The fourth batch I used cornstarch and water instead of eggs.
The results were surprising. I compared all batches of cookies by taste, texture and look. Each batch had different results but the cookies made with cornstarch and water tasted the most like the batch made with eggs.

I concluded that my hypothesis was correct. I made cookies without using eggs and they still tasted good. I used peanut butter, applesauce, and cornstarch as a binding agent instead of eggs. I am concluding that if you want to make cookies without using eggs, the best substitute would be cornstarch.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1823) Do Men And Women See Things Differently?

I am intrigued with the assertion that men and women see things differently. Recent scientific studies suggest that indeed, men and women have different abilities in their visual perceptions. The purpose of my experiment is to determine is such theories would play out amongst people I know. Based upon my research, I made the hypothesis that Males and females do see things differently. Females are more likely to distinguish differences between similar colors. Males are more likely to perceive fine details and track moving objects. I prepared two experiments. The first experiment showed a busy image to male and female participants for 30 seconds, had the participants write down all the could remember and asked follow up questions. For the second experiment I showed the participants a fast moving video clip and had them write what the could remember. For each experiment I studied the first 5 items each participant listed, tallied repeated objects identified by separate genders, and found the top answers for each gender. Then, I analyzed and compiled data for gender differences in observations. From my observations and analysis, I concluded that Females do see chromatic subtleties more than males. However, my experiments were inconclusive in determining whether males are more adept at tracking moving objects. I also found that males see a wider variety of objects than do females. Overall, my studies support that males and females do see things differently.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-2824) Get That Zit To Quit!

Acne affects 80% of people ages 11 to 30, making it the most common skin disease. It is caused by blocked pores that get infected, and it causes inflammation. We wondered how well some natural treatments killed bacteria when compared to common chemical treatments. Our hypothesis was that chemical acne treatments would kill more bacteria than natural acne remedies. We used an agar diffusion test to see which acne treatment worked the best at killing bacteria. The acne treatments we compared were benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, witch hazel, Burt's Bees, green tea, and water as a control. We found that water, witch hazel, and green tea did not kill any bacteria. Burt's Bees and benzoyl peroxide cleared a small amount of bacteria. Salicylic acid killed the most bacteria, supporting our hypothesis. We concluded that salicylic acid was the most effective treatment we tested at killing bacteria, but other acne treatments could be better at reducing inflammation or other problems associated with acne.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1826) Hmm..That's A Little Bit Salty

At which salinity do brine shrimp thrive best?

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1827) The Effect Of Air Quality On Student Attendance

My hypothesis was that high pollution levels caused by high PM. 2.5 will cause more student absences. Based on background research, during Salt Lake City’s winter month inversions, a layer of cold air beneath a layer of warm air traps particulate matter from cars and other fuel burning activities. Matter that is less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) is especially hazardous to our health because it can penetrate deep into our respiratory system, and cause problems such as wheezing and chronic cough. Children take more breaths than adults, causing them take in more PM. 2.5 This makes children with bronchitis or asthma suffer more severely than adults with the same conditions.
I wanted to see if high PM 2.5 AQI values (poor air quality) increased the number of absences amongst elementary school students. My analysis clearly shows such an effect. During the inversion months, school absence percentages were above 4% for 60% and 62% of the inversion school days for Bonneville and Hawthorne respectively. During the non-inversion months, school absences were above 4% for just 40% and 35% for Bonneville and Hawthorne respectively. Based on this, I conclude that poor air quality does have an effect on student attendance by increasing student absences.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1829) Catch This

Question asked was why is it when I close my eyes I feel like I cannot focus as well on things around me? When I asked my dad he suggested I figure out how eye sight affects "Hand-Eye" Coordination? My hypothesis was when I close one eye I cannot see as well and I believe this will affect my ability to play sports. Or to say it a different way: Closing one eye reduces "Hand-Eye" coordination. My research shows that binocular vision allows us to see in 3D. Some animals can see better than others based on where their eyes are placed. Closing one eye reduces a person's binocular vision field. Hand-Eye coordination is used for everything and can be improved by practice. My experiment went as follows: Two people would stand 8ft. apart. One person 1 throws the ball and person 2 catches the ball(repeated 10x). Then person 2 catches the ball with their right hand only(repeated 10x). Then person 2 catches the ball with their left hand only(repeated 10x). Now blind fold the person's left eye and have them catch the ball 10x. with their right hand only. Then repeat having them catch the ball using their left hand only. Then reverse the process with the blind fold on the right eye. My results show closing one eye reduces Hand-Eye coordination about 30%. I learned that closing one eye makes it harder to see moving objects and estimate how fast they were moving.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-3830) I.S.A. Alfred 9000

Our team created a battery-operated machine. It is a remote control robot that will bring you soda without you having to get up. We designed and tested our prototype and it is fully functional.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1832) X Ray Hormesis In Yeast

There are always rumors about risks associated with using cell phones because of fears of radiation exposure. I wanted to know whether these fears of radiation are reasonable. I did research on everything from radiation, to the damage it can do, to the discovery of X-rays. The way I conducted my experiment was by exposing samples of yeast to different amounts of X-radiation and observing how much carbon dioxide they produce in a balloon. The amount of carbon dioxide they produce tells me how healthy the yeast is. I discovered the surprising result of Radiation Hormesis, where low doses of radiation actually can increase viability of living organisms.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1833) How Much Salt Does An Egg Need To Float In The Sea?

Taking regular water with regular table salt to see how much salt it would take for egg to float.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1834) Domino Theory

At what speed do dominoes fall? Have you ever set up a line of dominoes and then pushed the first one to see how they fall? Well, I am going to set up dominoes at varying distances and see how fast or slow they fall down. I will set up several tests of each distance to get an average. It will be interesting to see if they fall faster when placed closer together or farther apart.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1835) Chicken Vision

What color is most attractive to a chicken?

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1836) No Batteries For Breakfast!

My research question is: Why is it bad to swallow a button battery? What would happen if you did?

My hypothesis is that since a battery conducts electrical current, it would burn you like electricity if you eat it.

My background research found that it is very bad to eat a button battery. If you eat one and it gets stuck in your food tube (esophagus), it can burn it. This can cause different very serious injuries.

To test this, I used a hotdog model. I put button batteries into hotdogs and measured what happened over time. Measurements were taken at 1, 6, 12, and 24 hours.

My observations were: I could hear the hot dogs sizzling and popping from the batteries like they were being cooked; after 24 hours, the large batteries made the hot dogs feel like they had been cooked; the larger batteries caused larger burns, but they all caused burns; there is evidence of a chemical reaction where the batteries touch the hot dogs.

My conclusions are that: The battery inside the hot dogs definitely caused burns, even after only 1 hour; the larger batteries caused larger burns, but they all caused burns. My hypothesis was confirmed.

What can we learn? Button batteries can be dangerous if eaten and they are found everywhere! It is very important that we teach children to never put these in their mouth and to teach adults to keep them away from babies and pets.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1837) How To Clean A Penny

This project will answer the question: How to clean a penny.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1838) Inherited Patterns Of Fingerprints

Most people think that fingerprints are unique to each individual. That is why they are used as a tool to identify individuals. However some people can have patterns that are similar. I will show how fingerprint patterns are related to genetics and answer the question: Are fingerprint patterns random or can siblings share same patterns because of genetics?

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1839) Slingshot/Catapult, Distance Vs. Force

The experiment tested the effect of the number of rubber bands and the rubber band pull/stretch length on the distance that a projectile traveled. The experimental data was used to explore the physics behind the slingshot catapult to calculate the spring constant of the rubber bands as well as the force, velocity and kinetic energy of the projectile.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-2840) Short Term Memory And Snacks

Does having a healthy or unhealthy snack impact short-term memory? We hypothesized subjects' short-term memory would be improved by having a healthy snack before a short-term memory task versus having no snack at all. We also hypothesized subjects' performance would be worse after eating a non-healthy snack versus having no snack at all. Our procedure was to give subjects (our 5th grade classmates) a short-term memory task of looking at 17 random items on a tray for 1 minute. After one minute we covered the items and subjects recalled in writing as many items as possible. At the same time of day, on the same day of the week, with the same subjects, but with 17 different random items, we performed the same test, but, 20 minutes before the test we gave subjects a healthy snack of apples and apple juice (subjects had to eat all food/drink provided to participate). We performed a third trial at the same time of day, on the same day of the week, with the same subjects, with the same amount of food, but with 17 different random objects. On this trial, 20 minutes prior to the test, we gave subjects an unhealthy snack of Oreos and root beer (again they had to consume all food/drink to participate). Our hypothesis proved correct; the short-term memory test results were best and statistically significant following a healthy snack versus no snack or an unhealthy snack. We conclude that having a healthy snack may improve short-term memory.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-2842) Does Color Matter

Does the color of a candle affect the burn time? Do white taper candles burn faster or slower than colored taper candles?
In conclusion we found that white taper candles burn faster more times than red taper candles because the red candles have denser coloring.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1843) Dirt And Its Impact On Snowmelt

Question- does dirt embedded in snow make it melt faster than fresh snow or snow with dirt on the surface? And if so, by how much? Hypothesis:
I predict that snow with dirt embedded in it will melt faster than snow with dirt resting on the surface and fresh snow. Variables:
The experimental variable in this experiment is whether there is dirt embedded in it, resting on the surface, or not there at all. 2 plates have embedded dirt, two have surface dirt, and 2 have no dirt.
Conclusion: My results confirmed my hypothesis. My hypothesis predicted that snow with dirt embedded in it would melt faster than clean snow and snow with dirt resting on the surface. In my experiment, the snow with dirt embedded in it had completely melted by the end of the second day. I learned in my experiment that dirt embedded in snow makes it melt really fast. I also learned that we have a big environmental problem on our hands. Part of the cause of dirt getting embedded in snow is Global Warming. Not only does heat affect the snow melting, but also dirt. This will cause problems with our water supply. We need to start taking actions against Global Warming now.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1845) Electromagnetism

My project is on electromagnetism. I made an electromagnet and wanted to know if battery size effects the strength of the magnetic field. My hypothesis was the larger the battery size the stronger the magnetic field. I conducted an experiment with six different battery sizes over ten trials. After analyzing the collected data I found my hypothesis to be incorrect.

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1848) Homemade Skis

What material makes the best homemade skis? Wood, cardboard or plastic? Made and tested skis from wood, plastic and cardboard products found at home. Tested the skis on speed, durability and ease of making. Findings indicate that plastic makes the best homemade skis.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1850) Strong Bridge Designs

Bridges are used everyday to get over rivers, valleys, cliffs and other obstacles. If we didn't build bridges, we would always have to go around the rivers, valleys and other obstacles. Bridges need to be strong or else they will be dangerous to cross. Different bridge designs effect how strong a bridge is. A bridge's design can direct and spread its load for strength. In my science project, I will be making different bridge designs out of pasta. I will test which design is stronger by adding weight to each bridge until the bridge fails.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1852) Engineering Music

Can You Make a Happy Song Sad?

I selected this question because I play the piano. I thought it would be interesting to see what people thought a song sounded like when it was changed from a major to a minor key.

I think that when you change a major song to a minor key, the song changes from happy to sad. From being a piano student and playing a lot of songs, I think that minor songs usually tend to be sad or mysterious and major songs tend to be happy or more cheerful. From my preliminary research, I learned that people usually have the same feelings about music no matter what culture they are from.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-2853) A Rainbow Of Flowers What Affect Does Temperature Have On Colored Water Plant Absorption Over Time?

We decided to do this project because we wanted to know which temperature would makes a flower change color faster. We think that our research is important because it could help other people that are doing a similar science project. We think it's convenient because it didn't take a long time to do. It was also pretty easy and didn't cost a lot of money. When we first did this experiment, we did not do it properly. We forgot to cut the stem at an angle so the water could not go through the xylems and this resulted in blotching in the flower. Our variables were controlled (room temperature), independent (hot and cold temperatures), and dependent (time approx. 3 hours). Our hypothesis is: We think that the flowers in regular cold water will absorb more water because our background research says that hot or boiling water can kill weeds and really freezing water will also kill a flower. Therefore, we thought it would be either room temperature water or cold water that would absorb quickly. We think cold water will absorb the very fastest because the water is still fresh and rich for the plant to drink. We also think that it will help if we cut the flower stem at an angle so that the flower can drink the cold-colored water faster and make the flower a new color.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1854) The Puck Theory

To figure out if the temperature of a hockey puck has an effect on how far it will slide across the ice.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1855) Woods Strength

Which wood is the strongest, Oak, Pine or Poplar? This science fair project compares the strength of three different wood types commonly used in building. This question was answered by measuring the amount of weight it took to break pieces of these tree types of wood. The results of this experiment show that Oak is the strongest and Pine is the weakest of the woods tested. This is important information for engineers and builders to know!

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1856) Does Candy Help Improve Mental Performance?

For my project I wanted to see if candy helped mental performance. A lot of kids eat candy before they take tests and do homework. I wanted to prove if eating candy actually helps or not. So I had a few of my classmates as test subjects take two tests. One test they took after they ate a Milky Way candy bar, and the other test they took without eating any candy before. The tests were the same level of difficulty, but they were different tests. My hypothesis was that I think candy would help mental performance. I conducted my tests and analyzed my results. The experiments showed that candy did not in fact help mental performance. My tests were 2% off on every average I calculated. Milky Way candy bars are not a good source of brain food.

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1857) Super Shocker!

We have all experienced static electricity. Wouldn’t it be great if we could capture and store that electricity in a jar? A Leyden jar is such a device that stores static electricity. There are many ways to create static electricity, such as rubbing a balloon on carpet, and then sticking it to a wall. For our experiment, we must create static electricity, and then transfer that electricity to the Leyden jar.

When you store the electricity in the Leyden jar, the inside and outside of the Leyden jar take on opposite charges, one being positive and the other being negative. When a path is made so these opposite charges approach each other, if the voltage is high enough, they will spark or arc between these opposite charges.

The length that the spark jumps is called the spark length. A charge cycle is every time I rub two objects that make static electricity together ten times, and then transfer the charge to the Leyden jar. . The Leyden jar lead to the devise we call a capacitor. Capacitors are used in many electronic devices of our time. Capacitors are like Leyden Jars, but are more efficient and are much smaller for the amount of charge they hold.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1858) Fighting Malaria With Plants?

assessing potency and cost of natural repellent vs DEET to bring a solution to malaria in third world countries

[Chemistry] (1CH-1861) Noodle Head

Rush, rush, rush! Everyone wants food, and they want it fast. So, is there anything that will make pasta cook faster? Don't know. Let's see if salt will do the trick.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1864) Here Comes The Sun Nobody Likes Rain On Their Parade

My project is if weather affects peoples moods.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1866) The Iceman Cometh: How Does The Amount Of Salt In Water Affect The Freezing And Thawing Rate?

My project is about salt and it's effects on water's melting and freezing times when it is mixed in with water. To do this project, I put water and varying amounts of salt into plastic cups. I took notes while the water froze. Then once it froze I took notes while it melted. My conclusion is that if there is more salt in water, it freezes slower and melts faster.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1868) The Joule Thief

I experiment a lot with electronics and have thrown away plenty of batteries and so I decided to set on a quest to find a way to use these batteries that are supposedly "dead". If I can, hopefully getting every last bit of energy out of them. So I am going to build and experiment with something called a "joule thief"
This is an electronic device that multiplies the power of a battery and sends power in short pulses to the power receiver. So I decided to make one. However, is it efficient? How long will it last? Will it always work? Is this even possible??? All of these questions will be answered in this experiment.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1875) Fingerprint Investigation

DNA is the "encoded genetic instructions" that make up who you are. These instructions are inherited from your mother or father. You could have you mother's eyes and you father's smile, but is it possible to inherit their fingerprint pattern as well? This project compared fingerprints of family groups to see if they are similar or not. I classified them into 3 main groups: loop, whorl and arch. My hypothesis was that fingerprint patterns are, in fact, inherited. In conclusion, my experiment supported my hypothesis and resulted in finding that most family groups have similar fingerprint patterns.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-2876) A Toxic Test

Our project was to find out if heavy metal contamination, like we see with pollution, will affect plant life. Heavy metal pollution affects our environment when mining, smelting and waste disposal industries release heavy metals into our soil and water. This affects plant and animal life. We studied whether heavy metal contamination affected plant growth. During our experiment, our procedure was to add 0.5% Copper Sulfate (CuSO4) solution to two plants and compare them to two plants without Copper Sulfate in the same growing conditions. We found that the plants with high doses of heavy metal contamination did not grow as well as the control plants. In conclusion, our experiment proved that heavy metal contamination does have toxic effects on plant growth.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1878) Causes Of Rising Sea Level The Thermal Expansion Of Water

Due to global warming sea level rise could become a major problem for islanders and coastal regions. Of the several events that can lead to increased sea levels, thermal expansion is projected to raise sea levels by as much as one foot this century. To understand more about thermal expansion, the relationship between water temperature and its density was explored. My hypothesis of the density of warm water being less than the density of cold water was proved correct.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1882) Winter Roads

Winter Roads shows the effect minerals and chemicals in our road salts have on plants. My hypothesis is that the plants that had minerals added in their water would live longer than the plants that had chemicals added in their water. I tested three sets of plants with seven different chemicals and minerals used in road salts. I also had a control flower that had no chemicals or minerals added in the water. The control shows you how a healthy plant should live. My hypothesis was correct and the results were confirmed. I suggest for people to use minerals (quartz and sand)instead of the chemicals in road salts (potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and urea).

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1885) Paper Airplanes

What is the effect wingspan has on flight time?
My project studied the effects of wingspan on flight time. I made 12 different paper airplanes. All of them had different designs from small wingspan to large wingspan. I went to a gym and tested the flight time and distance. Each airplane was flown four times, and I calculated the average flight time and distance. I soon found that the bigger the wingspan the farther the plane would fly. My hypothesis was partly correct. Planes with the largest wingspan had the best average times and distances except for one plane. It had a large wingspan but its design was not aerodynamic. It flopped. If I was to do the experiment again I would make all the planes the same design with different sizes of wings.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1887) Pondering Pond Scum

Pond scum is the excessive growth of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in ponds and lakes. It causes many problems in our local lakes and ponds because it can decrease the dissolved oxygen level to the point where water organisms will die. It also produces a toxin that is released throughout the water and harms animals that live in the water and that drink the water. For this study I tested the effect of cyanobacteria on goldfish, brine shrimp and daphnia. I had to grow the cyanobacteria to test the toxicity in the water. I also had to condition all of the test species to their test chambers to make sure they could grow and survive in a normal way. The toxicity test results showed that there was no difference in goldfish survival in a 72 hour toxicity test. But there was a reduction in their weight and there was more stressed behavior in the cyanobacteria chambers. The adult brine shrimp in the cyanobacteria had lower survival. The juvenile brine shrimp had no difference than the controls. The daphnia were very sensitive to the cyanobacteria and all died within one hour of the test. Therefore, the cyanobacteria had negative effects on all of the species tested and especially the daphnia. Pond scum is definitely harmful for ponds and lakes.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1891) Cup? Case? Counter? Drawer?

My project was designed to determine the cleanest place to store my toothbrush. I researched bacteria and found the optimal conditions for bacterial growth. I also conducted a survey among my classmates to find the most common places to store a toothbrush. I picked the top four of these places and conducted my experiment. These were in a cup, in a case, on the counter, and in a drawer. My hypothesis was that the brush kept in the cup would collect the least amount of bacteria. I had two groups of four brush their teeth for five days and each kept their brushes in one of the designated locations. I swabbed the test brushes, swabbed the plates and incubated them in the Olympus Jr High science lab after the five days of brushing. I observed and recorded the results in my science journal each day. My results proved my hypothesis wrong. The toothbrush that was kept in the drawer was the cleanest. This information is helpful to me because I now keep my toothbrush in a drawer and I have also told my classmates to do the same. This will help me stay healthy.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1893) How Fast Is Your Cap?

Have you ever wondered why swimmers wear those funny looking caps? Is it just to keep your hair out of your face? Does swimming with a cap make you faster? How much of a difference does it make? I am a competitive swimmer and I have often wondered if wearing a cap makes me faster in the water. The purpose of this scientific experiment is to determine if wearing a cap makes you more hydrodynamic and, if so, how much of a difference does it make. Hydrodynamics deal with the movement of fluids and the forces acting on solid bodies that are in the fluids.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1897) The Science Of Degradation: Salt Water Vs. Fresh Water

My project compares the degradation rate of various objects (wood, banana peel, nail, aluminum foil) in salt water vs. fresh water. Over 4 weeks the rate of degradation of the objects varied and was dependent upon which water sample the object was in.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1898) Tomato Growth: Seeds Vs. Starts

The hypothesis is: If Better Boy tomato seeds are bought and planted, then they will produce more fruit than store bought tomato starts, because the tomato starts may not have been well taken care of. I learned that my hypothesis was wrong on this experiment. I learned that just because you work on a plant from seed does not mean that it will be better than a start that is purchased at a store. My seedlings grew a little bit - however, they did not produce a single tomato. By the time the experiment ended seedling #1 had 2 flowers and may have produced eventually, if it was not so late in the year. I also learned that tomato plants #1 and #2 that grew from store bought starts produced tomatoes at close to the same rate and close to the same time each week. I never saw many bees, that could be why we didn't get many tomatoes. The garden boxes that the experiment was done in were new and maybe the bees were not used to that area. That could mean if the experiment was conducted again, there could be a better result - as the bees might now realize that there are plants there.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1900) Pucker Up

Is a dog or human's mouth cleaner.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1901) Rust Remedies

People are always claiming their home remedies work just as well as store-bought products. This includes home remedies for the removal of rust. I'm testing to see which home remedy removes rust best and if it works better than a store-bought product. My hypothesis is that Naval Jelly bought at the store will remove rust the best. I also believe Coca-cola will be the most effective home remedy. I got this idea when my father tried to remove rust from a pair of pliers with Coke. The results of the experiment show that white vinegar worked almost as well as Naval Jelly.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-2902) The Sleeping Giant

Are Earthquake proof materials? We attempt to find out what structure will withstand an Earthquake.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1904) How To Detect Changes In The Earth's Magnetic Field

I wanted to see if the earth's magnetic lines varied over time or if they stayed constant. I constructed a simple magnetometer using a bar magnet and a mirror enclosed in a clear soda bottle. Light reflecting from the mirror to a paper on the wall amplified any slight changes in the magnet's alignment where it could be measured.
I found that there were slight fluctuations in the magnet's alignment of up to around 15 minutes of arc showing the magnetic lines vary as time passes.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1906) Funky Fossilization

Have you ever thought if you wanted to find fossils, where would the best places be? The desert? Ancient lake or stream bed? Or a forest? This projects purpose is to show which soils provide the best conditions for cast fossils.
The soils used in this project were sand, topsoil, and pond soil.
The hypothesis was that sand would provide the best conditions for a cast fossil, because of its ability to keep a mold. For example, sand castles.
Using 3 different types of soils, 3 different times, to determine accurate results.
To limit the variables in the soils that were used, each soil type came from the same source.
A seashell was placed in each soil sample and removed, then plaster of paris was poured into the soil. When the cast dried, they were labeled, cleaned, and examined.
Lines were counted to show a determination of detail for each mold. The sand provided the most lines, confirming the hypothesis.
One more note. After a week of drying, the pond soil could possibly produce a more detailed cast than the sand.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1909) Cabbage Chemistry

Comparing the accuracy of two different homemade pH indicators. Red Cabbage and Apple Skins. Four different solutions will be tested, their pH will be determined by each of the indicator and then compared to pH strips to determine accuracy and which of the two is more accurate.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1913) In To The Storm

The purpose of this experiment is to see if the strength of a vortex determines the strength of a tornado, to see if a stronger fan can cause a stronger vortex. This was tested by using two different fans and different sizes of dry ice (small, medium, and large.) After the dry ice was set inside the container of fog, or tornado box, the fans were tested one-by-one to find the strength of the vortex. Data and observations were recorded. It was discovered that the strength of a vortex actually needs a cooler and wider block of dry ice it create more fog to produce a better fog tornado that has a better fan with more rotation per minute (RPM.) The hypothesis that the strength of the vortex determines the strength of a tornado and that a stronger fan can cause a stronger vortex was accepted because a bigger, wider block of dry ice, and a stronger fan created a stronger vortex/tornado.

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1914) Color Pigmentation With Light

I used red green and blue flashlights and overlapped them on a wall to see what colors they would make. The colors varied depending on the distance from the wall.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1917) Does The Sense Of Smell Affect Your Taste?

My project was whether or not the sense of smell is needed in order to taste. I investigated this first by blindfolding my subject. I did this so they couldn't see the color of what was being tasted. Color sometimes indicates flavor. I then asked the subject to plug his or her nose. I asked them to taste a frootie with out smell to see if they could indicate the flavor. All 20 of my subjects responded by saying they couldn't tell the flavor of the frootie. After chewing with their nose plugged for a few seconds I allowed them to continue to eat the frootie without plugging their nose. As a result all 20 subjects were able to taste flavor. Some individuals didn't guess the exact flavor but guessed one that was similar. In conclusion I sure am glad to have the sense of smell because I love the taste of frooties:)

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1918) Crystal Radio

My project’s purpose is to understand how a crystal radio works, and the design variables which affect the function of the radio reception.
My hypothesis for this project is: I will build a functional crystal radio. It will receive local am stations. The reception will be improved with a longer antenna and after sundown.
The constants in my experiment were a good ground, radio design, and radio location.
The variables in my project consisted of antenna position, radio station location, and time of day.
I found that radio reception was better in the evening with a high placed outdoor antenna. The stations closest to my location sending out a stronger signal were better received.
My conclusion is: I gained an understanding of radio waves and transmission. I understand how radio parts and their function.

I built a functioning crystal radio which testing revealed
Radio location:
• The closer the radio is to the transmitter, the better the reception
• Radio reception is better if there are no large objects (mountains, buildings) between the radio and the transmitter. A closer station led to a better signal and reception.
Antenna position:
• An antenna placed high outside (above the house) gives the radio better reception than lower location or indoors.
Time of day:
• Reception for distant stations is better at nighttime because radio waves can travel further through the atmosphere.

[Chemistry] (1CH-3920) Floating Layers

For our project we calculated the density of eight different liquids, and inserted them in from most to least. Our eight liquids were honey corn syrup, maple syrup, milk, dish soap, water, vegetable oil and rubbing alcohol. We placed the liquids in that order. Our hypothesis was that all of the layers would go in as they were supposed to, but liquids of similar density will collide and never go back to their original spots

[Chemistry] (1CH-1922) Hot Pajamas

I investigated if adding flame retardants to infant’s and children’s pajamas increases safety during a fire. I hypothesized that the fire retardant pajamas would reduce the likelihood of the pajamas igniting with direct flame impingement; however, I hypothesized that in the case of a fire starting remotely the type of pajamas worn would not impact the overall safety of the child.
I conducted two experiments testing different types of heat transfer; direct flame impingement which results in conduction and convection heat transfer and a remote fire scenario which results in a radiation heat transfer.
The experiments required a body with tissue that could be burned. Since I clearly could not use real babies, I used small frozen turkeys (thawed). These turkeys were dressed in the pajamas during the experiments. The observable results may not directly reflect what would happen to living human tissue; however, I feel confident my results are a good approximation.
After my direct impingement experiment was done I compared the flame retardant pajamas with the cotton (non flame retardant) pajamas, and as I hypothesized the flame retardant pajamas prevented ignition and resulted in less damage to the subject. However, in the remote fire experiment the findings did not support my hypothesis, I predicted that in the case of a remote fire there would be no difference in the safety of the child based on the type of pajama worn, the use of cotton pajamas resulted in lower temperatures and a safer environment for the subjects.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1923) Soccer

Project to test kicking accuracy. People were asked to do three different sets of ten kicks at a line at the gate. The experiment was to measure accuracy when kicking with the toe, the laces, and the inside of the foot. Accuracy was measured by the distance between the position of the kick against the designated line on the gate.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-2925) Refraction

Can you bend a beam of light? If light passes through a more viscous or dense material then it will refract or bend more. We filled five identical glasses at room temperature with different types of liquid. We used water, rubbing alcohol, corn syrup, oil, and air. Then we placed an identical pencil in each cup and took a photo at the same angle with each cup. We printed out the pictures and measured the angles of refraction using a protractor and ruler. From this experiment, we proved that as light passes through a liquid it will refract or bend. The thicker or more dense the liquid the more it will refract. The oil refracted the most because it was the most dense.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1926) What Water Solution Hatches Brine Shrimp The Fastest?

In my project I used different water solutions using 2 different salt water solutions, a sugar solution, and distilled water to see which one would hatch the most brine shrimp. Brine shrimp are used to feed fry (baby)fish, so it is important to know what water solution will work to best hatch them. I found that a salt solution of 1/4 teaspoon of salt per cup of water will hatch brine shrimp the fastest, but a higher salt solution of 1 teaspoon of salt per cup of water will hatch more brine shrimp.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1929) How Color Affects Taste

Does the color of food affect the way we taste food? Participants were given 4 samples of white vanilla yogurt. One was dyed red, one green and one yellow. The 4th was left white. They were asked to taste one yogurt sample and say what flavor they thought it was. Then they were to take a drink of water and then proceed to the next sample. They did this with all 4 yogurt samples.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1931) Separating Water

I made an Electrolytic Separator for my Engineering project. An Electrolytic Separator is a machine that uses a process called electrolysis to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen. As soon as electricity from a high voltage battery hits water through metal contacts, the positive ions of the liquid switch with the negative ions. The negative electrodes switch places with the positive electrodes. My Electrolytic Separator has a storage tank in which you can store the hydrogen. How you check and see how much hydrogen is inside of the container is you add a little bit of Oxi-Clean and the more horrid the smell is, the more hydrogen you have inside of the tank. If you add a higher voltage to your metal contacts, the electrolysis works better. If you add more metal contacts to the the water and run the electrolysis, the machine would also work better. The reason you might want to add salt to the water is because salt helps the water conduct even more. A bad thing about adding salt is it helps decay your metal contacts faster. Finally, I recommend Epsom Salt instead of table salt because it tends to work more efficiently and effectively. That concludes my engineering project abstract.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1934) Being Blind

my project was to see if I could get my hearing to get better if i didn't have eyesight so for 10 hours I blindfolded myself and went the whole day without my sight. I chose this project because I was I am interested in how people like Daniel Keish, a blind man, could use echolocation when they are blind. Then I thought that since bats and rats both have poor vision and they can use echolocation that it must be that when you can't see all your life your brain adapts. I wanted to see if I went without my sight if it would improve my hearing, even just a little.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1936) Follow The Herd

It is a behavioral science topic studying how people will break rules or engage in behaviors they might not otherwise do if they see others doing so. We studied how students would cheat or not depending on a control group and then various cheating scenarios. We demonstrated how this would and does apply in other areas.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1943) How Do You Like Them Apples? Household Cleaning Methods For Pesticides Vs Organic.

Pesticides are commonly used in agriculture. They have been found to be toxic to humans (Lah, 1). To see if the pesticides could be washed off, I took the apples and tried to wash off the pesticides in three different ways. I did this by taking four regular apples and two organic apples and put them through the sample preparation process, then ran the samples through the HPLC. Results revealed that the organic apples had no DPA and the washing method that removed the most pesticides was the hand washing method.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1945) The Nose Knows

The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether the nose and more specifically our sense of smell has any effect on the way food tastes. After researching I hypothesized that individuals would be less likely to identify food samples without their sense of smell. I tested 25 individuals and gathered 8 food samples for them to taste 2 times. I tested them the first time with nose plugs on and then again with the nose plugs off. In both cases the individuals were blindfolded and could not see the food samples. When I analyzed the data, I found that test subjects identified more food samples correctly with their sense of smell. My hypothesis was correct.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1951) Does Coke Take Out A Stain?

I tested the effectiveness of Coke as a stain treater against 5 different stains. To see the real difference I also tested the same stains against four other stain treaters. The stains that I used were ketchup, pen, lipstick, grass/mud, and butter. The stain treaters that I used were coke, regular Kirkland laundry detergent, baking soda and water, vinegar, and a stain remover. First I put all the stains on five different pieces of material and let them soak in for an hour. After they were done, I put the stain treaters on and let them sit for another hour. Then I put them in the laundry on hot/cold setting and normal wash cycle. After they had been through both the washer and dryer, I compared them all.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1952) Brace Yourself

I recently got braces and the orthodontist told me not to drink soda. He said it was bad for my teeth and braces. The acidity in soda and other beverages wears away the enamel on your teeth. I decided to test many of the common beverages in our fridge in order to tell which drinks were bad for my teeth. I used litmus paper to test the pH of each beverage. Beverages with high acidity would be harsh on my enamel. Almost all of the beverages I tested were much higher in acidity than I anticipated. I was shocked. The only beverages that were neutral were water and milk.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1954) Power To The Paws

People have right or left hand dominance. So naturally, I wanted to know if dogs had the same trait. This project tests to see if dogs have a dominant paw, like humans have a dominant hand. The dogs were given three different situations where they had to use their paws multiple times to get what they wanted. The variables were a taped box filled with treats, a jump a few inches off the ground and tape on their nose that caused discomfort. My hypothesis is that if a dog is presented with a puzzle in which it has to use its paws, then it will show a paw preference (or lateralization) because studies show that lateralization is present among all vertebrates. The experimental results supported my hypothesis by demonstrating that most dogs made more paw movements with one paw over the other paw. Also, gender played an important role in the results of which paw is dominant. Lastly, some dogs were inconclusive either because the motivation to use their paws did not work with them, or they were too distracted during the testing.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1955) Fully Loaded

Which brand of disposable diaper absorbs the most water?

There are many different brands of disposable diapers. Mothers are always looking to find the best diaper at the best price for their children. I thought it would be fun to do a test to see which diapers hold the most water. This would help mom's know which diaper would be best for their baby.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1957) Which Water Type Helps My Plant Grow Best?

My project is on how different types of
water effect plant growth. My hypothesis is
that spring water will help a plant grow best.
To see if I was right I did the following experiment.
First, I took 4 different types of lettuce and 3
different types of water. I took 12 plastic
cups and filled them up with dirt and planted
6 seeds in each cup. I watered them with
a tablespoon of water every morning and
every night.
My hypothesis was incorrect because
spring water drowned the plants and they
died. It didn’t help them at all. Tap water
helped them grow very tall with more plants. Distilled water
didn’t help them grow better than tap, but it also didn't make the
plants die.

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1961) Usa High Speed Rail Suitability Analysis Using Gis

The United States is the top oil consumer in the world. As President Bush said in his 2006 State of the Union address “We have a serious problem: America is addicted to oil.” We must find ways to cut down on oil consumption in the US. Public transportation, high speed railroads in particular, could be a solution. High speed rails use a third less energy per mile than auto or air travel. A nationwide railway system in the US could reduce the nation’s oil consumption by 125 million barrels a year. My research conducts a suitability analysis to identify the best places to build high speed railroads in the US using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies. There are 2 main factors considered in my spatial analysis. They are population density and the spatial distribution of existing railway systems. A mathematical model is proposed to calculate the suitability scores for each county in the US. My result shows California, Florida, Texas, and the Great Lakes regions as well as the Northeast are the most suitable areas to build a high speed rail network in the US.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1962) How Household Objects Muffle Sound

Noise is all around us, even inside our houses. TVs, washing machine, loud siblings make sounds that you sometimes cannot turn off. But you can make it quieter by placing something in between the noisemaker and you. But what should you use?

My hypothesis is that the thicker the object, the less sound will be transmitted. So it will not be as noisy on the other side. I think this because more sound will be absorbed as it goes through a thick layer of material.

One Android smartphone was used as a sound source and another as a sound meter in my experiment. To avoid measuring sound reflections from other objects in a room, the sound source was placed in a PVC pipe that was covered with foam on all sides except the opening of the pipe, which was covered by different objects I was comparing.

The thicker layers of the same material muffled more sound, which proves my hypothesis correct. The deeper sound goes into the object the more of it is absorbed.

Material of which the objects are made also matters. Dense materials block (either reflect or absorb) sound better. Less noise passed through a book, than through a pillow or foam of about the same thickness. Thin layers of aluminum foil blocked sound as much as thicker layers of a jacket.

This project is interesting because I got to see how much ordinary household objects muffle sound.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1967) Can Fruits And Vegetables Conduct Electricity?

I will show a example of full power to turn on the clock. I will also show ways that do not power the clock

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-2969) Space Elevator

We have created a tube that takes you to space though the vacuum of space. This works because of atmospheric pressure, because the pressure is close to 0 in space and down on earth(at sea level) is about 14.7.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1970) Mystic? Not Really

The purpose of this project was to test which chemicals burned longer. My family goes to Red Fish Lake every year. While there, a packet of mystic fire is thrown into the campfire, which creates different colored flames. They were so beautiful that I wanted to know which chemicals created the colors and if a certain color would burn longer. I purchased 5 different chemicals in their pure form, although many can be found in common everyday household items. Next I poured each chemical into three small dessert bowls. There were five chemicals in fifteen bowls set with five bowls per row in three rows . I added both alcohols, 1 to each row, until I had one row of pure chemical, a 2nd row with 70% Isopropyl Alcohol, and a 3rd row with 70% Ethyl Alcohol. Both alcohols were mixed with the pure chemicals. I used the following for my base chemicals in all 15 bowls, Strontium Chloride, Sodium Carbonate, Copper Sulfate, Potassium Chloride, and Cupric Chloride. After I had all the items in the bowls I was able to light them on fire! During the test I used 15 individual stopwatches on multiple computers, phones, kindles and a tablet; this was to time how long the flames would burn. Each stopwatch was assigned to the particular bowl. The stopwatches were started when a defined fire began and stopped as a fire went out.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-3971) Sleep, Everyone Needs It, Right?

Sixth grade students will sleep for different amounts of time. They will take tests to determine how well they can process and think based on the amount of sleep that they had gotten the night before.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1972) Wing Shape And Lift

How does changing the shape of a wing affect lift. Using a wind tunnel to generate consistent wind, and a section of wing, we measured how the lift was affected when the flap of the wing was adjusted to different angles.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1973) Happy Feet: Wool Vs. Cotton

The purpose of the experiment is to compare wool and cotton sock thermal insulation properties in cold weather.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1976) Sound V. Heart Rate

The purpose of my science project was to determine whether different music/sounds affect a persons heart rate. Before beginning my experiment I thought that the faster paced music would make a heart rate increase. I began by getting each persons beginning heart rate, then after a minute of sitting and resting I recorded a resting heart rate, next I had them listen to a minute of Let It Go from the Frozen sound track recorded it and last a minute of relaxing nature sounds. As I monitored each persons heart rate I was surprised that they all responded so different to each section of the experiment, but when averaging out each result the two sounds were the exact same and the different sounds did not affect the heart rate. The biggest difference was from the beginning heart rate and the resting heart rate. So I concluded that the different sounds do not affect the heart rate.

[Chemistry] (1CH-1977) The Effect Of Altitude On The Temperatures At Which Distilled And Salt Water Boil

The purpose of this experiment was to determine what effect altitude has on distilled and salt water’s boiling points. This problem is especially relevant to cooking in Utah with its assorted altitudes. I hypothesized that as altitude increased, the boiling points of both salty and distilled water would decrease. I also predicted that salt water’s boiling point would change the same amount as distilled water’s at different altitudes. In the project, distilled and salty water were each boiled three times at eight different altitudes throughout Utah and Nevada, ranging from 1607 feet to 8389 feet above sea level. The results clearly show that as altitude increases, the boiling points of distilled and salty water both decrease, but they did not decrease at identical rates. Though salt water’s boiling points were always higher than distilled water’s, the difference between the two at 8389 feet was 1°F (198°F - 197°F), but at 1627 feet, the same difference was 2 1/3°F (209 1/3°F - 207°F). The trend lines on the graphs suggest that the boiling points would actually cross at a higher altitude. In conclusion, the first part of my hypothesis was supported, but the second part was not. As altitude increased, boiling points did indeed decrease, but the salty water’s decreased at a steeper rate than distilled water’s. Regarding cooking, the change in boiling points is indeed significant at different altitudes, and the additional benefit of adding salt at higher altitudes may not be as useful as at lower altitudes.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1979) Are Flushable Wipes Really Flushable?

I wanted to research the effects of wet wipes on the sewer system. My grandma works in the sewer industry; she says it is a big concern for them and for the environment when people flush things down the toilet. Within 24 hours whatever is flushed down the toilet travels through a series of pipes and ends up at the sewer treatment plant. Items that don't break apart easily and quickly get stuck in the pipes and roots of trees. They block the flow and cause sewage backups. The raw sewage can seep up into basements and flood yards. Raw sewage is hazardous for plants, animals, and humans. For my experiment: I took four items: toilet paper, a Kleenex, flushable wipe, and a wet wipe and put them into clear jars filled with water. I let them sit for 24 hour increments. Each day I would agitate the water with a mixer/beater and pull the item up out of the water to see if it was dissolving. I wrote my observations down in a data journal. I suspected the toilet paper would dissolve the fastest and it did, within one day. The Kleenex, flushable wipe, and regular wet wipe did not. Even with the agitation of mixing up the water and items, they didn't break apart very well. The Kleenex did start to get soggy and fell apart as I pulled with the tongs. But it never did dissolve completely. And the wipes, they never did break apart and dissolve.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1984) Fishtastic!

We have several beta fish in bowls in our kitchen. I found that it is difficult to feed them the proper amount of fish pebbles, so I figured out a fish feeder that works much better and releases a small number of pebbles at a time.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-3985) Mobility Speaking Device

The device we engineered can help people with visual impairments to locate and avoid objects in their path up to 3 feet away. It can be worn on a hat, belt or hand held.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1986) The Best Type Of Soda That Can Inflate A Balloon A

My project puts to test what type of soda can inflate a balloon faster.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-2987) Bend It Like Bode

Our project investigates the design of skis and the importance of composite sandwich panels. Composite sandwich panels are used in applications that require light weight, high strength structure. Aside from skis, other common uses for sandwich panels are surfboards, airplane wings and aircraft floors. We will build, test and analyze the strength and stiffness of composite sandwich panels.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1988) With What Type Of Light The Plant Goes Uppity Up?

My project test with which type of light does a plant grow best or faster.

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1989) Cool Conductors

The purpose of this project was to determine the relationship between conductivity and temperature of various metals. This project may help people save money and energy by encouraging the use of metals that are least reactive to temperature change from -20 degrees Centigrade to 200 degrees Centigrade. The problem I was trying to solve was, “Which metal’s conductivity reacts the most to temperature change?” My hypothesis was that copper’s conductivity would react the most to temperature change because it is the most conductive metal. The main materials of this project were a simple circuit powered by batteries, and five different metals. The metals were heated and cooled to specific temperatures and attached to a circuit powered by AA batteries. Each metal’s current and voltage were measured in order to calculate the metal’s resistance. The results of the experiment proved that the hypothesis was incorrect: steel, not copper, was the most reactive to temperature change, followed by iron, brass, copper, and aluminum. Although the hypothesis was incorrect, the results were supported by further research. To continue this project, it would be useful to test several more types of metals to see if resistance is affected by temperature in the same way. One question that remains after doing this experiment is: why does resistance of metals go up as the temperature increases.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1991) Music To My Ears

I placed 8 butter beans of equal quality into their ideal environment and exposed them all to the same amount of sunlight and water. Two were exposed to 3 hours of classical music, two to 3 hours of holiday music, and two more to 3 hours of Rock and Roll music, and I had two control plants. The plants "listened" to the music after dark in rooms all on the same level, but the plants were in separate rooms. The volume of the electronic devices playing the music was the same. When the plants were not being exposed to music, they were all in the same room, about 3 inches apart from each other. I watered them as needed, or at least every other day. I exposed them to their assigned type of music every other night. I measured the plants every day. Also, I frequently took pictures and wrote in a notebook.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1993) Measuring Air Pollution

The purpose of this experiment was to find the most polluted area in the city, because I live in Rose Park and I want to know if the oil companies that are close to my neighborhood cause more visible contamination that in other areas in the city. My hypothesis was that Rose Park has more pollution than other places in Salt Lake City. It took me 1 day to set the samples up, and then wait for 5 days and 1 more day to recollect and analyze the samples. The visible particles in the samples were kind of hard to count; some samples did not have too many particles. I didn’t find any evidence to support my hypothesis, and actually the samples from Rose Park had the least visible particles that I counted. We can say that pollution is all over the whole city no matter if you are close to oil refineries.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1994) Does Eye Color Affect Your Sight

My purpose was to evaluate weather a person's eye color affects their ability to identify in low light. I was going to do another project, but this one caught my eye. My procedure was, I had to gather 15 test subjects. 5 with Blue,Green, and Brown eyes. I had to calculate the percentage and analyze their results on the percentage of the colors they saw.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1996) Gross Takes On Chemical

My projects describes which fertilizer organic (rabbit feces, fish, worm casting) or chemical (miracle grow) will grow rye grass tallest.

[Chemistry] (1CH-3997) Floating Layers

For our project, we calculated the density of eight different liquids and inserted them in a graduated cylinder from most dense to least. The first three liquids we could put in easily, but from the fourth layer to the eighth, we had to dribble them down the sides of the cup.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1998) The Testing Of Strength In Homemade Electromagnets

Does number of coils wrapped around an electromagnet affect its strength?

Using a nine-volt battery to create an electrical field around a nail, create my own electromagnet.

The more times you coil the copper wire around a nail in an electromagnet the stronger the electromagnet becomes.

Three separate electromagnets were created with different wraps of wire aroung a nail to see how many paper clips each electromagnet will pick up.

The electromagnet with the most wraps of wire around the nail was able to lift more paperclips than the electromagnets with fewer wraps of wire around the nail.

I found that my data supported my hypothesis by showing that the more times the wire is coiled the stronger the magnet becomes.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-2999) Buckle Your Best

Each day in America 3 children die and another 260 are severely injured from not buckling the seat belts correctly. Our project finds a way to alert when a child deliberately buckles the belt incorrectly. It uses a simple electric circuit made with conductive paint to detect incorrect buckling. This can be customized to any car/car seat. Also, instead of LED lights, sound or any other alerting mechanism may be used.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-11000) Age And Memory

To test my question 'does age effect memory', I composed a simple test of 10 words. The test subject was given 30 seconds to review and remember as many words as he/she could. When the 30 seconds was up, the subject was asked to write down as many words as possible from memory. The test subjects were not timed for this part and the words did not have to be in order. I tested people of different ages and theorized the older test subjects would not have as good of recall, and thus a lower test score.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-11001) Engineering Beam Design: Lego Economics

Design structural engineering beams out of Legos, then load simply supported beams to failure and analyze results to determine optimal design

[Chemistry] (1CH-11002) Add, Absorb,Drip

My project is on sodium polyacrylate, a super absorbent polymer found in diapers. My big question is to find out if more water is absorbed with higher concentrations saltwater solutions. My hypothesis is that the sodium polyacrylate will absorb more water with the most amount of salt. I found out that sodium polyacrylate absorbs the most water in solutions with the least impurities.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-11003) Take The Pedal Off The Medal

I was curious if certain objects on or by the road would have an effect on the speed of the cars passing by. I thought of this question after our city officials put metal planter boxes in the middle of the street in what I assumed was an attempt to slow people down. I wondered if other objects or people would make drivers slow down too. To be more specific I thought that certain objects like kids, balls, dogs and strollers would make people in cars slow down, in order to not get to close or hit it.

[Chemistry] (1CH-11004) Soda Science

Have you ever wondered why soda is bubbly? The answer is in a chemical reaction called carbonation. Carbonation is when carbon dioxide is suspended in water, creating small bubbles. My project was to find out the ratio of baking soda to citric acid to sugar would make the most enjoyable soda pop. My hypothesis was that ¼ teaspoon of both baking soda and citric acid will do best, with 1 teaspoon of sugar. My procedure was to Take out five, clear plastic cups and label them 1-5, and put ¼ teaspoon citric acid in all of them. Then put 1/16, 1/8, 1/4 1/2, and 1 teaspoon of baking soda in the different cups. Make a graph to record the results, that includes grittiness and bubbling on a scale of 1-5 with five being low and one being high. Put 1/4 cup of water in them and taste them initially and after 1 min. Record the results. Find the best average of bubbling and grittiness and make three solutions of it. put 1/4, 1/2, and 1 teaspoon of sugar into them. Have taste testers taste each of them. Record the results, and make a graph to show the information. My hypothesis is wrong 1/8 tsp baking soda and ¼ tsp citric acid had the most desirable bubbling/grittiness average scores. The sample with most sugar had the most number of votes.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-11005) To Silence A Garage Band

Neighbors are always complaining about the garage band next door and telling them to “Keep the racket down”. I got a drum set around a year ago, and I thought about what would insulate the sound the best. I wanted to see which material out of six will insulate the sound of the a bluetooth speaker the best. It came to me when I noticed that I had to play my drums with the garage door closed. Then I wondered why not just play with the insulation and not make your neighbors mad. If I cover a cage with various insulators, then foam rubber would insulate the best, because my research stated that foam rubber would insulate best. I want to figure out what will insulate sound the best. I covered a cage with insulators and found out what insulated best and what insulated the worst. The thickness of the materials and the reliability of an Ipad mic are my variables. An Ipad mic is not reliable. A Kindle Fire mic is more reliable. Bungee cords were used to tie down certain materials. I observed that pillows and cotton moving blankets will insulate sound the best, and that plastic wrap amplifies sound. My project means that if your neighbors have a garage band, just tell them to nail pillows or moving blankets to their garage.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-11006) Fiddling With Foundations

I wanted to know if a building on a slope needed a deeper or shallower foundation depending on the angle of the slope. My hypothesis was that the steeper the slope, the deeper the foundation would need to be. To test my idea, I made a ramp. I filled it with dirt and put a lego duplos tower in the middle in a measured foundation. To use it, I placed a lacrosse ball at the top, let it roll down, and made observations. In conclusion, I found that my hypothesis was correct. The steeper the slope, the deeper the foundation needed to be!

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-11008) U See Me Rolling

The purpose of this experiment is to know what type of Charmin toilet paper is reliable. The hypothesis was that Ultra Strong would be the strongest of the other chosen three because it’s two-ply and it doesn't use a chemical to make it soft. The experiment involved recording the number of nickels one sheet of toilet paper can hold. This was done by testing each type of toilet paper with one sheet each. Then you would put a tablespoon or a half a tablespoon of water on it and put one nickel on at a time. The average of nickels that could go on an Ultra Strong sheet was greater than the averages on the other Charmin types.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-11009) Does Density Matter?

Wi-Fi speeds are always going up with the advancement of technology, but does the location of the router and the materials around it stop, or redirect the flow of the signal? This project looks at different materials to determine which ones have the greatest effect on a Wi-Fi signal. The theory that material density affects Wi-Fi signal strength was tested by comparing a baseline recording to a recording of a signal blocked by different materials. Three readings were taken on three separate occasions and recorded using WiFiInfoViewer. The materials varied in thickness and conductivity like metal, glass, wood, and cardboard. The hypothesis was that the density would have an adverse effect on the routers Wi-Fi signal. The result did not support my hypothesis; some of the thickest materials had the smallest effect on the signal. In contrast the conductive materials like a thin piece of aluminum foil disrupted the signal more. The experiment did not support the hypothesis. The hypothesis should be changed to include conductivity. The Wi-Fi signal was also difficult to measure and was affected by other uncontrollable factors such as time of day, other devices, etc.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-11014) How Art Affects Emotion

Do the subjects and colors of artwork affect the emotions of the observer? I had several people identify the emotions they felt when looking at a particular piece of art. There was a list of emotions to choose from. I concluded that visual art does affect emotions based on the colors and subject of the art.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-11015) Aerodynamics And Wing Design

Aerodynamics is the study of force and how things move through the air. The word aerodynamics comes from the two Greek words aeros, meaning air, and dynamis, meaning force. What makes a plane lift in the air and what makes it stay up? By building a balsa wood airplane and changing wing designs, a test can be conducted to see which wing design will provide the most lift. The largest wings should have the most lift because they have the most surface area to provide lift.
A test was conducted with a store bought balsa wood airplane, a desktop fan, two dowels mounted on a plank of wood to hold the plane stationary and six homemade balsa wood wing designs. The balsa wood wings were of varying sizes to test the amount of lift for each design. The plane was inserted between the dowels and the fan was turned on to test lift.
The test results did not confirm the hypothesis. The wing with the most surface area did not provide the most lift because the added weight kept the plane from lifting as well as others. The triangular tipped wing design had the most lift likely because weight was removed from the wing and the weight was removed from the least efficient part of the wing.

[Chemistry] (1CH-11016) Evaporation Contemplation

The purpose of my experiment is to find out if different kinds of water (Reverse Osmosis, Mountain Spring, Distilled, Soft, Hard) have different evaporation rates. My hypothesis was that the distilled water would have the fastest evaporation rate because of its purity and lack of mineral content. I thought the hard water would have the slowest evaporation rate because of its increased mineral content. I gathered research about my topic and then began my experiment. For my procedure, I heated 1/4 cup of all kinds of waters (each separately) at the same temperature (High) and timed how long it took for them to evaporate. I kept the size and temperature of the pan the same throughout my experiment, as well as the burner size. I recorded all observations as well as my results in my science journal. I repeated my experiment three times. When I finished, I organized my data and came to conclusions. From this experiment, I can conclude that my hypothesis was incorrect. The distilled water took the longest to evaporate at 11 minutes 45 seconds, then the mountain spring water at 11 minutes 43 seconds, then the soft water at 11 minutes 37 seconds, followed by the reverse osmosis water at 11 minutes 33 seconds, and finally, the hard water, which had the fastest evaporation rate at 11 minutes and 17 seconds. I think my experiment would be a lot more accurate if I used a more accurate unit of measurement for the water, like milliliters.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-11019) The Science "Lab"Rador

I was curious to know if my Black Labrador Retriever would run faster for a ball or dog treat. So I decided to do my science project on if my dog would run faster for a ball versus a dog treat.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-11021) Water Water Everywhere... Make A Drop To Drink

Fresh water is a natural resource that is not easily found in all areas, but is necessary for people to live. The ocean covers over 70% of the earth, but the salt makes the water undrinkable by people. In my engineering project, I wanted to see if I could make a design that would change enough saltwater into fresh water for one person to survive.
To create my engineering project, I would have a heat source and an unlimited supply of saltwater. I used several different materials to create my designs.
I tried a lot of different models. Some worked, but some were epic fails. In the end, I found that I needed a heat source, a pot to hold the saltwater, copper tubing to carry the steam away from the saltwater and heat source, cool water in a bucket which cooled the steam in the copper pipe, and a container to hold the fresh water.
Although most of my designs did not make nearly enough fresh water, my last design produced 0.665 liters of fresh water in one hour. Assuming that I could keep my fresh water maker running 24 hours a day, I could make enough fresh water for 8 people to survive!

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-11022) The "Night Light"

The problem I’m trying to solve is that sometimes it is hard to see street signs and addresses from a moving car at night. This is especially challenging for my family because we often times are driving through neighborhoods to get to friends’ houses and other activities, so we have to see addresses. It is also challenging to see obstacles from a moving boat in the early evening. As you can probably tell, both of these problems have to do with a lack of light. So to solve this problem, I am making a very powerful light called the “Night Light,” which can be used in both cars and boats.

The Night Light is very special, because it uses a motorcycle headlight bulb, although is a handheld device which you can orientate in any desired direction. This allows you to use it to look at anything while in a car or boat, and is especially designed for looking at addresses on houses and street signs, but also obstacles from boats in the early evening.

The Night Light is very safe to use, and is housed the rubber end of a toilet plunger to protect it. It also has a rubber grip, so if needed, you can be driving a car and operating the light at the same time without dropping it. The Night Light will power on the second you plug it into the cigarette lighter, making it easy to use at any given time.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-11023) Cooking Catastrophe

The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the method of cooking affects the decomposition of our food.
To conduct this experiment I did the following steps:
1) I cut three boneless, organic chicken breasts into four equal pieces. There were twelve pieces total so I could run three trials for each method of cooking. 2) I then cooked three pieces of chicken by the following methods: boiling, microwaving, baking, and sautéing. I cooked each piece until it reached at least 185 degrees Fahrenheit. 3) All samples were then placed in new, clean plastic containers and moved to the high school science laboratory, where they were kept in covered Petri dishes in an incubator. 4) I observed each sample for eight days and monitored mold growth. I took pictures of each piece of chicken.
The microwaved chicken samples never grew mold even after eight days, and the baked chicken grew mold the first day and had the most mold by the end of the eight days. I analyzed my data and concluded that microwaving affects the decomposition of our food.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-11024) Saved By Science

The purpose of doing my science fair project was to see if a Non-Newtonian fluid is bullet proof, and if it is, it could be a revolution of public safety. This project observes how bullet proof a simple cornstarch and water mixture is by shooting it with one, two, then three sardine cans full of the Non-Newtonian fluid. My hypothesis was that three sardine cans full of the fluid would stop a bullet completely. I measured this by placing a block of gelatin behind it, and measure how deep the bullet went in, if it did. My results were that none of my tests could stop a bullet, but, I did notice that the two and three packets did have a quicker and cleaner expansion. Something I would like to change is the amount of packets in front of the gelatin; I would like to increase them. My experiment also showed that it did not slow the bullet, but did make a cleaner and earlier expansion.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-11027) Archimedes Screw Pump

Does the size of the tube on an Archimedes screw pump make a difference? Will a 1/4 inch tube be more effective than a 1/2 inch tube? I hypothesized that a 1/4 inch will work faster since it is skinnier and more water will go through. I made two screw pumps the same except one had a 1/2 inch tube and the other had a 1/4 tube wrapped around a 2 foot long 1/2 inch PVC pipe. I did three tests, or trials, with each size of tubing to get an average number of rotations to see which worked the best. My hypothesis that an Archimedes screw pump, if the tubing is a 1/4 inch, will work faster than a 1/2 inch tubing was incorrect. When we tested the 1/4 inch tubing it took an average of 76 rotations of the pump to fill the upper bowl with a 1/2 cup of water. With the 1/2 inch tubing it took an average of 22 rotations to do the same. The 1/2 inch was much faster because it was bigger and could carry more water. I learned that even though I thought smaller would be better, bigger is sometimes better. If I was to do it again I would add more wraps to make more periods to see if I could increase the slope without losing water.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-11028) Wax On? Wax Off?

Determining what type of wax can help you ski faster.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-11030) Parallax

Parallax is the apparent displacement of an object because of a change in the observers point of view. There is often confusion on how parallax affects the accuracy when looking through optics, such as a rifle scope. i want to try to determine what affect parallax has on accuracy when target shooting.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-11031) Thermal Electricity

A peltier can convert hot and cold temperatures that are generated by other home held devices such as a stove or the engine of a car into electricity. These sources are found in a house but there are also natural elements such as the high temperatures that the sun produces during the summer time or the freezing temperatures outdoors during the winter that can be used to trigger a peltier to produce an electrical current.
During this experiment cold and hot water were used to substitute or replace other sources that waste energy, or natural sources that are currently not used to produce electricity as the examples that were mentioned before. After the aluminum shields were placed on both sides of the peltier element, it was exposed to the hot and cold water in a special thermal container to contain the cold and heat in, and to have more efficient results. After a few seconds electricity will begin to be generated.
The results of this experiment show that the peltier element can be used to produce an electrical current. This proves that this can be a future source of energy that later on can be modified to produce a higher voltage. The voltage produced by the results only produced about 2v with the help of the peltier device and the hot and cold water.

[Chemistry] (1CH-11035) Dishwasher Dissolved

Do dishwasher packets dissolve best in water or in other liquids, like soda and milk--which have more sugar and chemicals that might make the plastic break down more easily? Is there a plastic that is specifically formulated to dissolve in tap water? That is what I wanted to find out.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-31036) What Can You Remember?

We tested a large number of people's memories by showing them a box of common items for 15 seconds, then let them write down what they could remember. Using the results from the first experiment, we then made a second experiment using a board and stickers. We again showed them to a large number of people for 15 seconds, then let them write down what they could remember.
We looked at results by boys/girls, age group, and month born. We also looked at what items were picked most often, where they were located and by who they were picked.
Our conclusions showed that overall, girls remembered better than boys and people in their 20's and 30's remembered better than those younger and older. Also, we saw that people's eyes focused more on larger objects and would also tend to focus on the top left of what they were looking at, like they were reading a book.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-11039) A Classical Eg Gsperiment

This project is designed to see if classical music will effect egg production in chickens. My hypothesis was that classical music will have a beneficial effect on chickens. The approach was to track egg production for two weeks without music, and two weeks with classical music. The two weeks without music was to establish a baseline. Then by adding classical music to the other two weeks, I discovered that egg production increased significantly. The results would suggest that classical music has a positive effect on egg production.

[Chemistry] (1CH-11041) Electrolysis Of Water

My project is The Electrolysis of Water and my question is during the electrolysis of water, which electrolyte conducts electricity the best. My variable was the additives added to the distilled water which consists of tap water, lemon juice, dishwashing detergent, salt, and baking soda.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-11043) More Power To Ya!

The goal of this project was to design, build, and test a way to make a helio tracker that will track the sun without relying on any electricity. A problem with static solar panels is that they don’t receive the maximum amount of sunlight in a day. When solar panels can track the sun, their efficiency increases significantly. I took data from 8:00 am until 5:00 pm for 3 days to determine if the ambient temperature made a difference on the pressure created in the bottles of methanol. I documented if the pressure would move the pistons in the syringes and move the solar panel. I also documented the weather, if it was tracking or not, the volts, and notes about the experiment. I had to switch from plastic to glass bottles because the methanol was eating away at the plastic bottle’s seals and making them leak. I changed the syringes from 25ml to 3ml to magnify the pressure. This part of the redesign helped to build up enough pressure to push the pistons.The system was able to track and follow the sun in order to get power without using electricity.

[Chemistry] (1CH-11045) Rocket Candy

Rocket Candy
What type of sugar will burn the longest?

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-11047) Do Altered Visual Cues Affect Verbal Responses?

How does the brain handle mixed messages? When the eye sees a picture, the brain interprets the picture and gives it a name. If a word is written below a picture but is not the correct label, will it change or interrupt the thought process? Will this interruption increase the amount of time it takes to verbalize the picture's correct name? I hypothesized that if a picture is mislabeled, then the time the brain takes to verbalize the true name will increase. To research this, I created two sets of cards with 20 images each. Group A cards had no label under the picture. Group B cards were labeled incorrectly. Then I interviewed 20 people. I showed half of the people Group A and half Group B and recorded the time it took for each person to respond with the picture's correct name for the whole set of cards. Then I graphed the results and found the average of each group to see which took longer. The average response time for Group A was 62.34 seconds, Group B was 52.48 seconds. It took 10 seconds longer for the group with the mislabeled pictures to complete the cards. My conclusion was that my hypothesis was right. I learned from this experiment that the brain/eye response system is confused when it has a mixed signal. The right and left hemispheres have to work together to find which is correct, which causes a delay in response.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-11048) Bad Air Day

Air quality refers to the state of the air around us and whether it is clean or not. Poor air quality doesn't just look bad it can also be harmful to our health and environment. Health impacts include shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, asthma attacks, bronchitis and increased threat of hospitalization. The American Lung Association indicated that Salt Lake City had the 8th worst air quality in the country in 2014. Salt Lake City is different than other large cities due to its topography which contributes to air being trapped in the valley. During the winter months temperature inversions are common. An inversion occurs when cold air gets trapped beneath warm air. Temperature inversions act like a lid over the valley, trapping emissions from cars, factories, and homes which allows pollution to build up. Since inversions trap pollution near the ground it was expected that the air would be cleanest in the mountains and the dirtiest air would be in the valleys.

Homemade air quality sensors were hung at four different locations (mountains, interstate, busy street, backyard) and left there for three days for three separate measuring periods. After they were collected the particulates on the sensors were counted. Air in the mountains was clean in all three events. It was found that the air in the backyard was cleaner than air near the busy street and the interstate. Sensors indicated that the dirtiest air was in the lowest part of the valley near the interstate and busy street.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-11052) Which Airplane Flies The Straightest

I did an experiment on seeing which type of paper airplane would go the straightest. I used a glider and a dart plane. My hypothesis was that the glider plane would go the straightest, because it would glide through the air softly and have less resistance.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-11054) Is There Life In The Ice?

I wanted to see if life existed in ice. I selected 4 different locations around Stansbury Lake and took samples of ice and water from each. I left the ice samples in a deep freezer for 3 additional days, and placed the water in the refrigerator during the same time. We took the ice and water samples to the genetics lab at the University of Utah to see if the samples had life. We melted the ice right before the slides were prepared. We compared the water and ice samples for life and had the microbiologist help identify the life we found. We found that all the ice samples had the same type and amount of life as the water samples. We found bacteria, protozoa, amoeba, and algae in both ice and water samples. We concluded that there was life in the ice! The amount and type of microscopic life in the lake water is similar to that of the lake water, and that both plants and animals can exist in the ice.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-11056) Ice Vs. Ice Water

Abbey investigated the effects of ice, compared to ice and water, at cooling drinks in an ice cooler. She looked at which is has the strongest and longest cooling effects. She took temperatures of drinks in two ice coolers; one with ice only by allowing the water to drain constantly out of the cooler, and the other with ice plus the melted ice water left in.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-11057) What Goes Up Must Come Down

At what angle will a ball travel the farthest(I used a tennis ball). I use a pneumatic cannon that I built to launch the tennis ball, measure the angle to launch from, and then measure where the ball lands.

[Chemistry] (1CH-11058) Chemistry Of Baking

The purpose of my project was to determine the effects of altering the amount of baking soda with all of the other ingredients as controlled variables. When making muffins what happens to the muffin when the amount of baking soda is increased or decreased?

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-11059) Experience Mint

Is mint an actual cooling agent or is it just a sensation?

[Chemistry] (1CH-11060) Ice Ice Melting

I wanted to know if/how salt affected the melting of ice. Used four different salt types (kosher, rock, regular table, and Epsom). Each type was sprinkled over five blocks of ice with one block of ice remaining free of salt to compare to. Observed ice blocks for 3 hrs and recorded findings.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-11061) Exercise That Brain

My project is on exercise and how it helps your brain. My purpose is to discover the effect, if any, that exercise has on the brain, specifically memory. My hypothesis is, if people exercise daily then their brain will be able to remember things better, because exercise will give more oxygen to the brain. I did a little research to prove my hypothesis.
For my experiment I had materials on two trays. On each tray there were eight items. The items were different on each tray. I covered the trays with a rag. I showed the first tray to the person for fifteen - twenty seconds. I had ten people do the experiment. After I covered the tray and let them write down what they could remember. Then I had each person run for 2 minutes, do 5 push-ups, and 20 sit-ups. Next, I showed them tray two, and let them write down what they could remember.
I had good results with my experiment. Six people out of the ten increased their ability to name the objects. There were three of ten that stayed the same. The only bad thing was one of ten decreased. I made two bar graphs to show the results. One was for before exercise and the other was for after exercise. I also made two little tables showing all the results. One table was for before exercise and the other table was for after exercise. My hypothesis was correct for the majority of people I tested. Exercise every time you get a chance, it is good for you.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-11062) Which Popcorn Pops The Best

This science project will help me determine the best popcorn using the pan-cooked method of cooking popcorn.
I want to find out what pan-cooked popcorn pops the most kernels leaves the fewest kernels. I think that Orville Redenbacher will be the best popcorn. I heated up a pan on a stove with ¼ cup of oil and cooked 0.100 kilograms of popcorn kernels. Once the oil reached 200 degrees I put the popcorn kernels in. The first pop of popcorn usually happened at 1 ½ minutes and the last pop of popcorn at 5 ½ minutes. After cooking, I weighed and counted the unpopped kernels to compare the different brands.
I did experiments with Jolly Time (yellow and white), Orville Redenbacher, and Red popcorn using the same controls and the same steps. When I did my experiment with the Orville popcorn something went terribly wrong. I accidentally set the oven temperature at too high a temperature and the popcorn burnt really bad. To find out why, I looked through my photos that I had taken from other past experiments and I noticed I set the temperature a different way in other experiments. In the Orville experiment I accidentally put the temperature on ‘power boil’ and that’s why the popcorn popped so quickly and burnt. I re-tried the experiment again but with the oven heating temperature at Hi and the experiment worked much better.
The conclusion of my tests was that the Jolly Time (yellow) popcorn left the least amount of kernels in the pan after cooking.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-11067) My Bed Is Better Than Yours: The Effect Of Different Growth Media Beds On Plant Growth In Aquaponics

Aquaponics is a self-sustaining system that allows for the growth of fish and plants in a
symbiotic relationship. Aquaponics can be used both indoors and outdoors and is thought
to be superior to conventional growth in both of these settings. Aquaponics works by
enabling dissolved solids from the fish to provide ammonia that is converted to fertilizer
by bacteria. The media beds support plant growth by providing a structure to maintain the
bacterial bed and to store the nutrients close to the roots. Three different types of media
were chosen for this project, each with positives and negatives associated with their use.
Coconut coir is sustainable and inexpensive for large growth beds, while expanded clay is
extremely expensive but has been proposed to be superior compared to other beds.
Expanded shale is available in Utah, but is expensive to ship to other states. Through my
research, my hypothesis is that expanded shale is superior to the other growth medias and
to conventional growth in soil. The goal of this project is to test which of three different
growth medias support better indoor vegetative growth of lettuce and tomato in
aquaponic conditions and whether these medias are better at supporting growth than
conventional growth in soil. Results showed that expanded shale supports bigger and
stronger lettuce and tomato plants overall, but that all medias are better than conventional
growth in soil. Further studies continue in order to determine whether expanded shale is
superior to the other medias for tomato fruit development.

[Chemistry] (1CH-11069) How Dose Temperature Affect Chemical Reaction

This project was conducted to determine if temperature had any affect on the rate of chemical reactions.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-11071) .30 06 Projectiles

Terminal Ballistics of a .30-06 projectiles. Which weight of projectiles will penetrate & expand farther into 11" phonebooks @ 50 yards. 180 grain bullet or 165 grain bullet?

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-11072) What Will Make Your Christmas Tree Last?


[Chemistry] (1CH-21073) Ice Melt

We froze equal amounts of water in three bowls and put three kinds of ice melt salt to see which salt make the biggest hole and which salt melted the fastest. We wanted to know if the pet friendly ice melt worked as wall as regular salt. Our hypothesis was that Calcium Chloride Ice Melt would melt the ice fastest and make the biggest hole because it has the most harmful chemicals. At the very end, our hypothesis was right and the calcium chloride ice melt did work and made the biggest hole. We think it is because it is made from a harmful chemical.

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-11074) What A Shock

Using a Leyden Jar, built from common household materials, I collected static electricity from different kinds of material (cloth) to find out which material would create the most static electricity. I did this by rubbing the material against a PVC pipe (charging the pipe) and depositing the built up static electricity in the Leyden Jar then compared the static discharge (spark) of each material against the other materials.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-21079) Color And Memory

Does different background and text color help you remember words better?

[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-11080) Does Heavier Cars Run Faster Downhill?

This project is to prove that heavier cars don't run faster downhill.
We put different weights on a pinewood dirby car and let it run free on a decline track. Each run is timed and recored. The car runs 20 times with the same weight. The averaged result shows that even when the car carries more than 2 times of weight, the travel time is still almost the same.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-11082) Crack Catastrophe

My experiment used a Lego Mindstorms EV3 Robot (named DetectEV-3) to detect cracks, ensuring safety for pilots. F-16 structures are starting to crack due to age and flight hours, so with the EV3, one can identify these cracks before they endanger pilots. I was investigating how one can use the EV3 to detect cracks, and which EV3 sensor (Touch, Color/Light Intensity) would work best. I began working on cracks on a White and a Brown Table to help in programming the DetectEV-3, and for determining sensor height. I then used the DetectEV-3 on three aircraft parts: a Long Silver Aircraft Part, a Short Silver Aircraft Part, and a Green Aircraft Part. Each EV3 sensor could detect cracks on four of the five test items, but none of the Lego sensors detected the hairline crack on the Short Silver Aircraft Part. Overall detection rate was 78.3% from 360 trials. The DetectEV-3 can detect cracks, on tables and aircraft parts alike, which can ensure pilot’s safety. The height of the Color and Light Intensity sensors from the test item was critical to the detection of cracks. Future improvements could be a more stable EV3 structure to hold the sensors, and the use of all three sensors (or more precise, non-Lego sensors) at once. These improvements may provide a quicker and easier way of detecting cracks, and may enable detection of hairline cracks!

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-11086) A Ball Of Fire And Ice

My science fair project is about how temperature affects bouncing soccer balls. While watching a REAL soccer game in December in Kansas, I noticed the ball didn't bounce as high as it does when RSL plays in Utah in the heat of the summer. My question was, does temperature affect a bouncing soccer ball? My hypothesis was, I think a frozen ball will bounce lower than a heated ball. I am trying to find out if the ball bounces higher in the summer or winter. If you like to play sports, then you should care because temperatures can affect any type of ball making the play different.
The first thing I did for my project was freeze two soccer balls. Then, I dropped both from five feet one inch high off the ground. With stop motion video, I measured how high they bounced. Next, I dropped each 10 times. The first frozen ball averaged a bouncing height of 26 1/2 inches. The second ball was 24 9/10. The first room temperature ball averaged a bouncing height of 42 1/2 inches. The second room temperature ball was 42 1/4 . The frozen balls bounced 15 3/4 inches and 17 3/4 inches lower. From this, I concluded that frozen soccer balls bounce lower than room temperature balls. In colder weather, kicks won't go as far, balls won't bounce as high, and players will have to apply different angles than in warmer weather.

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-21087) Ski Wax

Our project determines whether certain ski waxes work in certain temperatures and why.

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-11089) Wind Blades

Comparison of wind blades.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-11093) Battle Of The Fertilizers

My experiment tested which type of fertilizer (compost tea, Miracle-Gro or Rapid-Gro) would help stimulate the growth of a bean seed the best. To do this I used 10 bean seeds and put them in the bottom half of a paper towel. I doused the paper towel with a 0.1X solution, 1.0X solution, or a 2.0X solution of each fertilizer and I used 30 ml of each solution. My control was water. I put each bag on a radiator and waited for 5 days before I opened them. I then measured how many beans germinated and how long the hypocotyl plus primary root length was. Compost tea and Miracle-Gro solutions germinated seeds the best. They were so close that I could not declare which did better. The Miracle-Gro 0.1X root lengths were very close to the 1.0X solution results. My results show that nutrients help beans germinate much better than if you just use water. Based on these results it is possible to use fewer nutrients than recommended and still have beans that germinate well.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-11094) Preservation Project

Fruit preservation is very important and useful in many ways. To find the most successful banana preservation method will save time, money, and food, and in some cases it can improve flavor.
This project investigates which banana preservation tactic among the four techniques will succeed in helping the fruit remain appetizing in taste, texture, and appearance. The four methods chosen were using a banana hanger, putting the bananas in the basement, wrapping the stem, and leaving them on the counter.
There were four banana bunches and each bunch had a different method. Pictures were taken every day to show the progress of the four methods. My hypothesis was that, out of the four methods, the wrapped stem would be the most effective because this would prevent the gas from allowing the fruit to ripen.
The results of my experiment show that my hypothesis was wrong, however, even though the wrapped stem tactic wasn't considered the most progressive, it did slow down the ripening compared to the hanger and the basement method according to graph three on all of the days, one through seven.
While doing the experiment, I realized that bananas have very delicate and sensitive skin. In the pictures it shows that most of the bruising on the bananas occurred in the areas that touched the counter. Also, I learned that the condition of the fruit should not be judged based on how ripe the peel is.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-11097) It's Written All Over Your Face

Do you really know what someone is feeling? How can you tell if someone is sad, angry or happy? My science experiment focused on micro facial expressions. These expressions are very quick lasting less than one second. These fast expressions are instinctual and most people try to hide these expressions to keep others from knowing what they are feeling. The purpose of my experiment was to determine who is best at correctly recognizing the micro expressions. I used photos of people showing the seven micro expressions and created a survey which I sent out on Facebook. Ninety people took my survey. Very few children took the survey. I decided to see if males or females were better at correctly identifying the expressions. The data shows that males are better at identifying the correct expressions in my survey.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-21106) Handwashing: Bar Soap Vs. Liquid Soap

We compared bar soap versus hand soap to determine which one cleaned hands better. We used three bar soaps and three liquid soaps and performed hand washing procedure with each. We then swabbed our hands and placed the swabs in petri dishes. We then documented bacteria growth in the petri dishes for one week. Our experiment determined that bar soap was more effective at cleaning hands.

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-31110) Stop Talking Dirty

Our goal is to see which cleaner will clean a phone the best. We used 5 different household cleaners and 5 different phones. We swabbed each phone and then a petri dish. Then we cleaned the phones, swabbed them, and swabbed another petri dish. We wanted to see the difference between a clean phone and a dirty phone and how well each cleaner cleaned the phones to get rid of the bacteria.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-11121) Small Electric Motor

The reason I chose this project is because I wanted to understand the electric motor more. In my hypothesis I thought that an insulated wire would hold more electricity causing the motor to move faster. I completed three separate attempts, the first two of the attempts I left the insulation on the wire. In the first two attempts I found the wire would not spin. My last attempt I removed the insulation finding that the wire with no insulation actually worked the best & did spin.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-11122) Taste Without Smell?

I wanted so see if you could taste food without being able to smell it. I blindfolded and plugged the nose of each taste tester and gave them foods from four different categories. They were sweet, bitter, salty and sour. After all of my research and testing I realized that taste is very closely related to what we see and what we smell.

[Chemistry] (1CH-11124) Bubble Fizz Experiment

If you change the size of the particles then the rate of reaction will change, so that if the particles are smaller the rate of reaction with be faster or greater than if the particles were large. This is because small particles have more surface area to react.

[Chemistry] (1CH-21127) Pains Of The Stains

We wanted to find out what kinds of stains are the hardest to remove on which materials. We tested various liquids that are know to stain and used stain remover to see which ones would come out the easiest.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-11128) Can We Slow Down Evaporation?

Do different pH levels change how fast water evaporates at 400 degrees Fahrenheit?

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-11129) Music Makes Movies

I believe that music influences how we enjoy a movie. This experiment is important because it shows that adding music to a movie enhances or changes the emotional experience of the audience. To prove this I made survey sheets and collected music clips from different movies and genres. Then, I gave the test subjects the survey sheets. Next, I played each clip twice, once without music, once with music. After everyone was done with the survey, I collected the data from the sheets. On the sheets the subjects listed how they felt. Using the emotions, I evaluated the difference in emotion with and without music. With the information collected from the survey sheets, I made a chart to see how many people were happy, sad, insecure and so on. I used the chart as a tool to create a bar graph so the data could be measured easily.
According to the results of my experiment, my prediction was correct. The test subjects’ emotions changed drastically from “calm” to “scared.” I conclude that music adds value to a moviegoer’s experience.

[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-11131) "Healthy Teachers, Healthy School, Healthy Environment"

I recognized three problems in the world that I thought I could fix: (1) the teachers at my school sit behind a desk for many hours a day, and that’s unhealthy; (2) the Earth is running out of fossil fuels and we need clean renewable energy sources; and (3) our school has many great programs, but it’s often hard to find money to fund them.

After I identified these problems, my research question was: How can I create an environmentally friendly form of energy that will make our teachers healthier, save our school money, and make our school a happier place?

My engineering solution was to build a stationary bicycle and connect it to a motor to create electricity. The bicycle can generate renewable energy to power a fan or small heater in each classroom. The teachers can exercise while teaching so they become healthier and produce endorphins as they exercise, so they become happier. The bicycle uses people power instead of electricity and produces clean energy. Finally, because my clean machine can power a fan or small heater, the school can save money by setting back the thermostats in the classrooms 1° --setting back a thermostat 1° can save about 3% a year on heating and cooling bills. I learned from the Director of Building and Grounds for the Park City School District that Parley’s Park Elementary spends about $130,000 a year on natural gas and electricity, so we could potentially save our school almost $4,000 a year!

[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-11135) Bacteria And Water Activity

For my experiment I was testing to see how water activity effected the transfer of bacteria from a surface to a substance. I assumed that foods with higher water activity levels would collect more bacteria. I conducted my experiment at the thatcher lab at the U of U. I had a mentor named kyphoung long. The first step of my experiment was to sanitize. Then I filled 18 petri dishes with nutrient agar. I put them in a BSL2 hood for 20 minutes to cool and harden. Then I dipped 3 dried apples into a dish with lacto bacillus and rubbed on 3 petri dishes. I repeated this for fresh apple, dried bread, and fresh bread. Then I sealed all the dishes with para film and tipped them upside down. Then I went home and stored them in a warm, dark place for 5 days. After 5 days I observed them and found that my hypothesis was inconclusive because I had conflicting results. The fresh apple had collected less than the dried apple even though it had a higher water activity which did not support my hypothesis. But the fresh bread collected more than the stale bread which did support my hypothesis because the fresh bread had a higher water activity than the stale bread. Therefore my hypothesis was neither wrong nor right so it was inconclusive.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-11137) Vocal Ranges

This project is about testing the different vocal ranges between men and women as well as adults and children.

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-21138) Put Your Water To Work!

We have designed a prototype for a mini hydroelectric generator that can recirculate water in a mater of seconds. This clean renewable source of energy should be able to generate enough power to illuminate several light bulbs and will benefit citizens who do not have access to the electrical grid due to location or cost.

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-11139) Project Control Authority

I looked an air airplane to see what helps it land and take off, and built an airfoil and four different types of vortex generators to go on the airfoil to see which VG helps better. I then put the airfoil in a wind tunnel.

[Chemistry] (1CH-11140) What Is The Fastest Way To Cool A Soda?

I created a hypothesis including four methods of cooling a soda. These methods include putting a soda in a bucket/cooler of ice and water, pouring a soda in a cup with ice inside, putting a soda in a cooler with snow, and putting a can of soda in the refrigerator.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-11141) Ebola! Run! How Would Infectious Disease Spread Across A Utah Middle School?

In 2014 the ebola outbreak in West Africa caused a panic and a couple months worth of news in the United States. In reality, if you were not in close contact with a very sick person, the probability of getting infected was low, but if you were, it would be a terrible death 50% of the time. The purpose of the study was to compare how Influenza and Ebola would spread at Ecker Hill middle school using a computer simulation experiment. Using EpiFire software, I created a contact network that represents Ecker Hill Middle School and designed simulated outbreaks based on the literature and interviewing a physician. I simulated outbreaks of Ebola and Influenza on the Ecker Hill contact network (10 simulations per disease). I used node state plots and epidemic curve plots to compare how the two diseases spread. Influenza peaked in four to five days according to simulations. Ebola peaked around eight days into the simulation. More people became infected with Influenza than ebola. Most people, but not everyone became infected with influenza. Influenza spreads faster according to simulations. The main limitations of this study were: (1) The rate of transmission for Ebola and Influenza depends upon a number of factors, and so I had to estimate it with recommendations from a doctor, and (2) Each simulation is slightly different, so it gives you an idea of what may happen, but not exactly what would happen in reality.

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-21145) What's The Best Blend Of Biofuels?

We tested individual plant based oils for the amount of stored energy. We then hypothesized which blend of biofuels would have the most energy. We tested the temperature and time this way, because it was the easiest way to test the fuels in small amounts without wasting any of the oils.

[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-11147) Sugar Overload

This project demonstrates how sugar affects the way you think. I am testing the question - How does sugar affect your memory?
To test this question I used a brain trainer quiz on subjects ages 7-10. I gave them each 1/2 a cup of Coca Cola prior to conducting the test. This was repeated without the Soda the next day.
I hypothesized that the scores would be higher without the soda because of the lack of production of BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor) caused by the sugar intake.
My hypothesis was correct the majority of the time. The reason why the average score with coke was lower than with water is because the sugar caused lack of BDNF, a chemical in your brain which helps you concentrate. I think this experiment is important because it shows what coke or other soda can really do to you. The average american drinks a lot of soda yet doesn’t realize how it affects their brain.

[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-21148) Color The Ozone

Can your choice of exterior paint for use on your house affect the environmental impact from your house? Will some colors reduce the need for home heating? Will others reduce the need for air conditioning? Depending uoon your climate, can color choice make a difference in overall carbon impact? We predict that dark colors will attract more light and heat your home. White or light colors will reflect light and keep your home cooler during the summer. Color choice is inexpensive and will help people save money on heating or cooling while helping the environment.

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-21151) Lie Detecter Test

The lie detector test is measuring whether you are weaker or stronger when you are lying or telling the truth. Our hypothesis was that if a weight was rested upon the arm of our volunteer that their arms would fall lower when they are telling a lie. Our hypothesis was correct, a person is weaker when lying than when telling the truth.

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-11153) How Does Cold Affect Batteries

My project is about how does temperature affect the useful lifetime of a battery. I built a small circuit board with two Energizer batteries, 4 lights, and a spinning motor. I put the circuit with the batteries in it in cold temperature places(fridge,freezer,dry ice cooler,ect.)I was testing how fast it took until the voltage of the battery was low(.8V)and when the motor stopped spinning, indicating that the useful lifetime of the battery was diminished. I put the battery in cold places to see if the battery would be affected by the temperature while the circuit was running. Every ten minutes I would check the voltage of the battery indicating about how much longer the battery had until the useful lifetime was up. In this experiment, I built a circuit capable of quickly overloading the batteries. I placed this circuit in several locations with temperatures ranging from 22ºC to -75ºC and measured the battery voltages over time. After completing the experiments, it was obvious that temperature had a huge impact on the useful lifetime of a battery. At the coldest temperatures, the batteries lasted less than 1/6 the time that they did at room temperature. I found that my hypothesis was proven. My hypothesis was confirmed by this experiment because as temperature was lowered, the battery died quicker. The colder it got the less time it took for the circuit to stop working, indicating that the useful lifetime of the battery was diminished.

[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-11156) The Effects Of Length, Material, And Diameter Of A Wire On Its Electrical Resistance

I wanted to know how length, material, and diameter of a wire affected its electrical resistance. I believed that the longer the wire, the more the resistance. I also believed that the thicker the wire, the less the resistance. I also believed that copper had less resistance than steel. I tested my experiment, using twenty-five feet of Copper 14 gauge and 18 gauge and Steel 14 gauge and 18 gauge. I also used electrical tape, cutting pliers, alligator clamps, two multimeters, and two D-size batteries to make a three volt battery pack. I made a battery pack by joining the batteries and securing it with electrical tape. Then, I put both ends of a wire on both sides of the battery pack. I clamped the wire with alligator clamps. I used the multimeters to check the current and voltage. I calculated the resistance by using Ohm's Law. I repeated some of my procedure three times. I found out that my hypothesis was supported. The twenty-five feet of wire had the most resistance out of all of the lengths. The fourteen gauge wire (the thicker wire) had less resistance than the eighteen gauge wire. Copper had less resistance than steel because it is a better conductor. Therefore, I found my hypothesis was supported. If I were to do this experiment again, I would use different wire diameters, lengths, and materials. Then, I would find a pattern. This experiment is used in televisions, light bulbs, and other electronics.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-11157) Blooming Rocks

My mom went to a gem fair and bought this limestone rock. She thought i might like to test it for my project. I thought it was an interesting project, that a rock found in Utah could grow crystals when put in vinegar. So i wanted to find out if different acids would make different types of crystals.

[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-11158) Cuttings

Some plants can reproduce asexually by growing roots from cuttings placed in water. I tested three cuttings each of variable lengths of a Pothos Plant (scientific name: Epipremnum aureum). I cut them, placed each in a 2 L pop bottle which was filled with tap water and put them on the window sill. Every week I measured the growth and drew diagrams of the cuttings. I worked on this science fair project during the summer months rather than the winter months because I knew my results would be better with more sunlight. I found the length was not the most important factor. In fact, the nodes in-between the leaves were the most important indicator of growth. The roots grew out of the nodes. When I had more nodes, the plant grew more quickly. The smallest sized cuttings did not grow at all because they did not include any nodes. I also did a cost analysis of this project and found, if you have sufficient time, you can save money by growing your own house plants through this method.