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Elementary Project Abstracts

Abstracts are sorted alphabetically by category. Jump to the start of a particular category by clicking a category link below. See Junior & Senior Division Project Abstracts

Behavioral & Social Sciences
Biology & Biochemistry
Chemistry
Energy & Transportation
Engineering & Computer Science
Environmental Sciences
Medicine & Health Sciences
Physics, Astronomy & Math
Plant & Earth Sciences

[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1001) Magnetic Strength

My Science Fair Project is about magnetic bracelets and if they can make a person stronger. Although magnets have been around forever and have been used in different cultures for healing and therapy, I wanted to know if the magnetic bracelets being sold today actually worked. I read that magnets could increase your blood flow due to their effect on the positive and negative particles in your blood. If your blood is flowing better, then oxygen can more easily reach your muscles. I read that the magnet would need to be at least 500 gauss to have this effect. But I also thought that a person might just perform better because of confidence in wearing a bracelet that was supposed to help. So I built a rig to measure strength. I randomly split my test subjects into two groups and tested everyone twice with no bracelet and then twice after putting on either a magnetic or plastic bracelet that looks similar to the magnetic one. I did not tell people what I was testing for or what kind of bracelet they had. I only showed them how to use the test rig. I found that overall the group assigned to wear a magnetic bracelet did better by about 7% and even a small increase can make all the difference when it comes to athletics.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1002) Color My Mind

Have you ever read something that you had trouble reading because something about it was distracting? The purpose of this experiment is to show if there is a reason to that and if this could effect education.
The probing question was: Does the human mind recognize colors or letters faster? After researching, the hypothesis given was that if people were asked to read colored print and name the color or the word, they will be able to tell the print faster and more accurately than the color of the print, because it confuses our minds due to the "Stroop effect"
For the experiment, subjects were asked to read digital flashcards as quickly and accurately as possible. They were given three different tests and had to name the color or the word in the tests. They were also asked which test was the most difficult and which was the easiest to accomplish.
The variables controlled during experimentation were the age, the tests given, the criteria, location, and instructions. The independent variable was the three different tests, and the dependent variable was the speed of reaction and accuracy.
After the experiment, the hypothesis was proven correct. According to the experiment, the time used for naming the colors was almost double the time used for naming the word. Some subjects said that naming the colors was difficult and annoying.
Future studies may include applying this experiment to other senses or under different circumstances.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1004) Conductivity Of Household Materials

The purpose of this experiment is to find which household material has the best electrical conductivity. The research for this experiment focuses on safety, conductivity, and circuits. The probing question is: What household material has the most electrical conductivity? The hypothesis for this project is that salt solution has the most conductivity among the selected materials. The experiment calls for a selected number of materials, a circuit assembled with two AA batteries, a switch, a meter, and a material. A control test is taken every day. The data prove that salt (dissolved in water) has the most electrical conductivity. None of the other selected materials comes close. The hypothesis is proven correct for this experiment. The salt solution has the best electrical conductivity because of the ions in it. The effect this experiment might have on the world is that it might influence greater safety precautions when working with conductive food materials.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1006) Effects Of Air Temperature On Falling Objects

This experiment compared the falling time of an object through cold air versus through hot air. The test was conducted to see if there were any measurable differences between falling in these different temperatures. The hypothesis was that an object would fall faster in hot air because air molecules spread out in warmer temperatures. An object was dropped in a variety of different temperatures and several times to produce a valid result. The results of testing show that the hypothesis was correct and the object actually succeeded in falling faster through hotter temperatures than through colder ones.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1011) Inattentional Blindness

Inattentional Blindness is when somebody is so focused on something that they don't notice something else in the background. In this experiment I wanted to see whether boys or girls would demonstrate inattentional blindness more often and if they would be able to see the random things in the background (a witch, a rubber chicken, and a dog). I thought that boys would see the things in the background more often and that most people wouldn't see the dog. In order to prove that, I made a video with people passing a ball and also some random things in the background. I asked 9 boys and 9 girls (all 11 or 12 years old) to watch the video and count the passes. After the video, I asked them to write down what each person in the video was wearing and whether they noticed anything unusual in the background. If they noticed anything unusual they were asked to write down what they thought it was. I asked them to count the passes during the video so that they would have something to focus on and their eyes wouldn't be wandering. The boys got 7 1/2 and the girls 7 on average (the number of random things noticed correctly) and only two people noticed all 3 things (the rest didn't notice the dog) Therefore my hypotheses were correct.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1012) Is Your Bathroom Breaking Bad?

Most people store their aspirin in a medicine cabinet in their bathroom, but do the high humidity levels decompose aspirin sooner and make it toxic? This project tests two different brands of aspirin in four different conditions.
I set four samples in the kitchen and four samples in the bathroom for six weeks. After, I conducted a spectroscopic analysis, by grinding up the aspirin mixing it with a solution of ferric chloride, ethanol, and distilled water. Then putting that into a spectrometer which read the sample and told how much salicylic acid had been exposed. My hypothesis was that the open samples and the samples in the bathroom would have the most decomposition, and that between the two brands, Equate and Bayer there would be no difference in the chemical break down. The results of my experiment showed that the more humidity exposed to the aspirin the more it decomposed. It also showed that there was a big difference between the decomposition of each brand. Three of four of the Equate brand aspirin was exposed to UV rays due to the clear bottle while only one sample of Bayer was exposed to UV rays. Making the UV rays a factor as you can see in my graph.
In conclusion different levels of humidity effect the decomposition of aspirin differently.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1021) Math, Minecraft And The Mind

My favorite video game is Minecraft, and I could play it all day. But apparently, video games rot your brains, or do they? I decided to ask, what effect do video games on the brain? My hypothesis: video games (Minecraft specifically) improve your math skills and other skills in that brain area. I tested subjects with a two types of skill tests, and had half of them play Minecraft and the other half wait. Then I repeated my skill tests. I averaged and found the difference between there two scores. My results did not support my hypothesis. But, these results aren’t the same as the results of other educated scientists. I hope to further my exploration of the brain and its reaction to video games.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1023) An Exploration Of Dark Vs. Light Preference In Rats

The goal of my project was to explore light versus dark preference in my pet rats. Since rats are burrowing animals, my hypothesis was that the rats would prefer the dark. To test this, I modified a T-maze into a light-dark choice maze. As a control, I first tested whether the rats had a bias to the left or the right side of the maze. Both rats had a slight preference towards the right, so I concluded that I needed to alternate which side had the light to find if they had a true preference for light or dark. When the rats were given a choice between light or dark, they chose to go towards the dark side of the maze more often and also spent more time exploring the dark side of the maze (12 trials for each rat). Next I wanted to test whether they could change their preference and associate the light with a treat. When the treat was placed on the light side of the maze, the rats spent more time there. Initially it seemed as if the rats were associating the light with a treat, but when alternating the side that the treat was on, I observed that the rats chose to go in the direction (right or left) where they had last found the treat (25 trials). I think with more training, my rats could learn to associate the light with the treat.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1024) Creating Citrus Circuits

OBJECTIVE:
TO DISCOVER OUT WHICH CITRUS FRUIT WILL CONDUCT THE MOST ELECTRICITY: LEMON, ORANGE, OR LIME.

METHOD:
I made a battery using two metal electrodes (copper and zinc) suspended in an acid solution. When you place the electrodes in a liquid containing an electrolyte (the citric juice in the fruit), it allows the electrons to travel from one metal to the other.
I thought that out of the 3 citrus fruits, the lemon would produce the most electricity because it contains a lot of citric acid and is more acidic tasting than the orange or the lime. I also thought that the citrus fruits would produce enough electricity to power an LED light bulb.

PROCEDURE
1. Squeeze the fruits to get the inside juices flowing.
2. Insert a galvanized nail and an old copper penny.
3. Attach a copper wire around the nail on each fruit.
4. Connect each nail and wire to the penny using crocodile clips. Repeat as many times as needed.
5. Connect the probes to the loose wires attached to both the nail and the penny to the multimeter and see how much electricity it produces.
6. Connect an LED light bulb to the battery to see if it will light up

RESULTS
All three citrus circuits produced the same amount of electricity: 60 mA. When I combined the fruits together to form a large circuit, the electricity reading rose to 120 mA.
None of the fruits could power an LED light bulb alone or combined.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1027) Dexterity

Does Gender affect Dexterity? I created a dexterity test involving moving nails with a tweezer. I tested approximately 100 subjects ranging from 8 to 76 years old. My Hypothesis was that Males would be better at the Dexterity test than females.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1028) Smog Busters

For my project I tested out six different types of face masks that could be used to filter pollution in the air. Due to so many people getting sick because of the poor air quality I wanted to see which of the six types would be the best. I wanted to see the role cost and construction of the mask would have in my testing.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-2032) Breathe In, Take More Time Out?

In our experiment we gathered information from the subjects and tested to see if our Hypothesis was right. We would give thanks to everyone who helped us and, all of our subjects breathed out longer then each in breath even when they exercised.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1033) Super Sinkers!

This experiment’s problem statement is seeing if different types of sand effect the depth of sinking. Three materials from Utah were used to see if quicksand could be created. The three materials were Aurora Clay, Moab Sand, Nephi Silt Loam. The hypothesis was the smoother the materials the more the objects will sink.
First the materials were tested when they were dry by putting a marble in the material and seeing how far it would sink. The dry tests were the controls. Water was then added to the materials and the marble was tested again.
According to the data the control that did the best was the Aurora Clay. The material that did the best when water was added was the Nephi Silt Loam. The hypothesis was incorrect. It is felt that the Silt Loam did the best due to the fact that it absorbed the most water. To improve the experiment more trials would be completed. Also materials with different water absorption would be tested.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1034) Survival Or Death

Protecting animals is important for the whole world. Aquatic life is very important for the earth. Good water conditions are essential for fish, especially for fish embryos (baby fish). The information about fish and water pH shows that pollution may change the water pH (the value of acidity or alkality) and water pH has an effect on plants and animals. Is fish embryo development and survival related to water pH? The hypothesis is that abnormal water pH will result in fish embryo death. To test this hypothesis the same amount of zebrafish and frog embryos were put in various dishes with different pH values, including the pH values of Utah Lake and Great Salt Lake. Some obstacles were that the water pH was hard to be maintained as designed, some fish did not mate, and some embryo quality might not be good. Couple days later the percentage of embryos survived was analyzed. It was found that when pH value was higher than neutral, part or even all of the embryos died. This result suggested that pollution that changes water pH can lead to death and even extinction of aquatic life. To confirm this result, in the future more kinds of fish need to be used for this experiment and the experiment should be repeated multiple times.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-3037) Hydroponics, Chemical Or Natural?

Purpose:
To find a suitable substitute solution for expensive hydroponic/hydro-nutrient solutions.

Methods:
We decided to grow 3 separate wheat grass containers using different types of water via hydroponics. Hydroponics is growing plants by supplying all necessary nutrients through liquids instead of soil. The solution in each container was tested to make sure it had the correct pH level of 5.1-5.9 (the ideal level).

Here is what was in each container consisted of:
Bottle 1:
Tap water de-chlorinated with D-klor drops
50 Wheat Grass Seeds
Strips of a t-shirt
Straw to blow air into water

Bottle 2:
Tap water with Miracle-Gro (½ tsp per gallon)
50 Wheat Grass Seeds
Strips of a t-shirt
Straw to blow air into water

Bottle 3:
Fish water taken from an aquarium
50 Wheat Grass Seeds
Strips of a t-shirt
Straw to blow air into water

Each bottle was re-filled as needed.
The straw was used to blow air into the water every few days.
Photos were taken of the plants on day 4, day 5, and day 11 of the experiment.
The average plant height and plant density were measured at the end of 3 weeks.

Hypothesis:
We think fish water will work best since it has natural nutrients.

Results:
Fish water did succeed above the others with the highest average plant height and greatest plant density.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1040) The Reusable Planet

This experiment aimed to answer the question: which types of reusable bags can hold the most weight? I did this experiment because the landfills in the United States are filling up with plastic bags. This project will show that using reusable bags is better for the environment. I hypothesized that out of a grocery store bag, a thick plastic bag, a bag made out of recycled bottles, and a fabric bag, that the fabric bag would hold the most. The experiment was carried out by asking two people to hold the bags at an even height. The books were added until the bags showed signs of tearing or could not hold any more. Then the bags were observed and analyzed. The results showed that the bags made out recycled bottles held the most weight and showed the fewest signs of tearing. If I were to continue this experiment the next step would be to test which bag is healthiest for the environment and break down the best in the landfills.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1041) Music With Heart Rate

I want to find out if listening to different types of music will affect your heart rate.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1043) Bouncing Balls

How does the size of a rubber bouncing ball affect the height of its first bounce?

This experiment consisted of dropping rubber bouncing balls from a height of 13 feet, while the student researcher was standing on an indoor balcony, and measuring the height of the first bounce. A 10 foot long paper with measurement lines drawn on it was attached to the balcony. The lines were used to identify the height of each bounce. Two balls of four different sizes were dropped three times each in front of the measurement paper. Bounce height was observed using a camera and multiple visual observers. Each bounce height measurement was recorded on a tracking sheet after each ball was dropped.

Control variables identified were: height balls were dropped from, surface balls were dropped on to, material balls are made from, density of balls and how balls were released. Independent variables are the diameter and weight of each ball.

The student's hypothesis was that the largest ball would bounce the highest because it weighs more. This hypothesis was proved false. After conducting the experiment and evaluating the data, the student learned that the size of the ball does not affect the height of the first bounce. He also observed that the height of the bounces were almost the same for all four sizes of the balls.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-2044) What's In Your Water?

Studies have shown that 80% of waterways in the USA show traces of common medication. Because traces of medicine have been found in drinking water, we wanted to see how different medications in drinking water affects living organisms. Our hypothesis was that medication in our water supply would adversely affect living organisms. We dissolved different medications into separate water containers and then watered 12 different fern plants with the water. The plants sat in the same spot during the entire experiment and received plenty of sunlight. Over the period of study all plants changed in height. However, plants that had medicine in the water decreased more than those in normal water. When we looked at each medicine we saw that some were associated with an increase in height. This suggests we need to understand what it is about medicine that affects the growth.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1045) Flying Aces

The purpose of my project is to compare the following paper airplanes:

• Dart
• Stunt Plane

I would like to find out which plane flies farthest and which plane stays in the air longer.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1048) Wood Flexibility

My project is on the most flexible wood. The first thing I did was to find 3 different wood to bend. The woods I chose were red oak, poplar, and plywood. I also got a big thing of wood that I drew a straight grid on. I then got something to hold the wood half way horizontally in front of the grid. After the camera was ready I would bend the other half of the wood that was in front of the grid down until it snapped. I would do the same thing for all of the wood. When all of the wood was snapped we plugged the camera in the computer where we saw were the wood broke. We stopped the video where it did snap and we took a picture of it. We printed the picture and recorded it on the grid. After I marked all of the lengths of where they broke and found averages of the two I marked where the averages were on the grid. What I found out from my data was that the soft wood or plywood bent the least because it does not have a lot of wood fibers to keep it together and resist shock. So that means that the hardwoods likes red oak, and poplar had a lot of wood fibers making in stay together and resist shock. Poplar was the most flexible, red oak was the second most flexible, and plywood was the least flexible. Poplar won because of its vary compact fibers and its way of resisting shock.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1050) Apples To Apples

The purpose of this experiment was to see whether people would prefer the apple with the highest amount of sugar. The hypothesis was if people try four different types of apples, then they will prefer the one with the most grams of sugar, because people prefer sweet and sugary flavors. Using the refractometer, four types of apples were measured for sugar content. Test subjects were blindfolded and given a taste of each apple and asked which apple they preferred.

The independent variable of the experiment is the variety of apple and the amount of sugar. The dependent variable of the experiment is which type of apple the test subjects prefered. The hypothesis proved incorrect, because most people chose apple 1 and apple 1 did not have the most grams of sugar. Apple 4 had 13.4% Brix and Apple 1 had 13.2% Brix.

The experiment is important because parents would want to know which apple has the highest amount of sugar. In the future, to take the experiment further, more than one trial should be conducted and a greater amount of people over a larger age range should be tested.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-2051) Sweet Vs. Sour

We tested whether sweet or sour candy would lead to better problem solving. We tested this by getting 102 students and having them put together a puzzle while eating swedish fish, sour patch kids, or no candy for our control group. We timed the students doing the puzzle to see how long it took them. Then we averaged their times separately into the groups of sweet candy, sour candy, and no candy to see which group made the students do the puzzle the fastest. After getting our results we found out that sweet candy made the students do the puzzle faster then with sour candy, but really made no much of a difference then with no candy. Our data suggests that the sweet candy didn't really help, but it didn't make it worse. The sour candy made the students do the puzzle very slow. In the end we found out that you shouldn't eat sour candy before taking a test, but really you shouldn't eat any candy before taking a test.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1054) Bottled Light

I am interested in learning more about solar powered light bulbs. As I was researching that topic on the internet, I found something that caught my attention, "Solar Bottle Bulbs." The bulbs are used in homes in third world countries that do not have electricity. The people in these countries pour water and bleach into plastic bottles and hang them from their ceilings for light. This allows families to be inside their homes during the day and have light.
I wanted to do an experiment to see which kind of bottle would reflect the most light. I purchased a regular soda bottle (plastic), a water bottle (made of P.E.T. plastic) and a glass bottle. I then filled the bottles with water, put a flashlight up to each bottle and measured how much light was reflecting off of it. I then took solar beads that change colors in the sun and timed how long it took for them to become fully colored. I compared the results and then came to my conclusion.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1056) Testing Wood Glue Strengths

When using a wood glue which brand do you grab? Is it the one that has been around forever? The one that is always on TV? or the cheapest one at the store? My project looks at three differend wood glue brands that all claim to be the best wood glue on the shelf. I put all three to the same test to see for myself. I was suprised with the results and you will be too.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1058) Shooting Strategies

I wanted to know where to release the ball so I can have the best free throw shooting percentage. My hypothesis is the higher the ball is released, the better the shooting percent will be. I got 5 kids from the Tooele Junior Varsity basketball team. I had each of them shoot 10 free throws releasing the ball from the chest, 10 free throws releasing the ball from the chin, and 10 free throws releasing the ball from above their head. From the data, shooting the ball from over your head has the best percentage.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-2059) The Need For Speed

We love to go sledding! We know from experience that different snow conditions effect the speed of our sled. This made us wonder if other factors make a difference in sled speed. Like a greasy or slippery substances sprayed onto the bottom of a sled. Wanting to answers these questions is what made us choose this science experiment. Ellie thought spraying Pam on the bottom of the sled would make it go the fastest. Rachel thought that rubbing hair conditioner on the bottom of the sled would make it go the fastest. We gathered our supplies including snow gear, helmets, a sled, Pam, hair conditioner, water, silicone spray and a timer. We marked off a 290 foot section of a hill with a starting line and a finishing line. We did a baseline run on the sled three times to get a starting number.This was our control run. We added our times together and divided by three to get an average. Then, we applied a product to the bottom of our sled and went down the hill three times in a row. This is how we tested our variables. Our aunt stood at the bottom of the hill and timed us when as we crossed the finish line. Our results surprised us! The sled went the fastest with nothing on it! All the other substances made the sled go slower. We discovered that friction was the key to understanding our results. The substances increased friction which reduced the sled speed.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1061) Does Microwave Affect The Calorie Of Marshmallow

I'VE BUILD A CALORIMETER USING BASIC DAY TO DAY FOUND MATERIAL.FIVE SAMPLES OF MARSHMALLOWS EACH MICROWAVED AT DIFFERENT TIMING ARE THEN EXPERIEMENTED USING THE CALORIMETER. THE CALORIE IS THEN CALCULATED USING THE FORMULA Q=MHC.
GRAPH IS PLOTTED TO UNDERSTAND THE RESULTS VALIDATION OF HYPOTHESIS.CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATIONS WERE MADE BASED ON RESULTS.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1062) What Color Is Your Appetite?

Some research suggests that the color blue negatively influences food choices. In this experiment, 200 subjects were presented with six colors of M&Ms and asked to choose the one that looked most appetizing. Age, gender, and color choice were recorded. My hypothesis was that blue M&Ms would be chosen the least, but surprisingly, the results showed that blue was chosen the most. Interestingly, 60% of the test subjects who chose blue were under the age of twenty, and test subjects over the age of sixty did not choose blue at all. This suggests that color influences food choices differently for different age groups.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1064) Barrels: The Goods And The Bads

For my project I started by setting up my tripod system (some books) to fit the gun. I then measured out 25 feet as a base to measure from, afterwards I loaded the first bullet. I then fired 5 shots with no barrel attached to the gun. After measuring the shots I recorded the data and found the average. The first average was 28’. Then I proceeded to the barreled shooting. The first barrel was what is called straight rifled which means there are grooves on the inside of it which help it adjust the bullet to fire straight. This barrels average was 41’. I then used the second barrel which was curved rifled. Which means it also had grooves on the inside which are curved instead of straight so they give the bullet momentum from the twist. Its average was 34’. Finally I moved on to the 3 feet PVC pipe which was just a pipe. It averaged 29’. This was done in a completely controlled area; no wind, no humidity, and no varying terrain.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-2067) What's For Breakfast

We wanted to find out what breakfast foods would affect our blood sugar the most. We tested blood sugar levels before a subject ate, 30, 60 and 90 minutes after. The breakfast foods were bacon and eggs, Raisin Bran, and oatmeal with brown sugar. We thought that the Raisin Bran would make the subjects blood sugar spike the highest and quickest of them all. After we collected all of our data we found that the oatmeal and brown sugar made it rise the highest and quickest, and the bacon and eggs made the blood sugar levels go down and was more stable. We found that we should eat eggs and bacon for breakfast instead of oatmeal with brown sugar or Raisin Bran.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1069) Weight For It!

How do skyscrapers stand? What if the very roof over your head began to crumble? That doesn’t happen because architects design buildings using different shapes for support that they know will hold the building’s weight.

I studied the strengths of different shapes for my research to learn which shapes are the strongest. What different structural design patterns will support the most weight? I looked at the arch, the rectangle, and the pyramid.

I found that the pyramid was likely to support the most weight therefore my hypothesis statement was that the arch would fall first followed by the prism and last the pyramid.

I gathered my craft sticks and glue, and constructed the shapes and laid sticks over the frames to give them more strength. I placed them on their individual cardboard pieces and added weight in increments of 2.5 lbs till they broke.
I recorded the data, took pictures, cleaned up the mess and transferred the data to a graph.

My variables were the structures, the weights, the glue, and the sticks. I found my hypothesis was incorrect because the prism held the most weight, then the pyramid, and then the arch.

If my structures had been built on the same scale with the same amount of material the results might have been different. In conclusion different shapes and sizes support weight uniquely. To get a more accurate result to this experiment I would need to do this project again in a same scale comparison.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-3071) Hydroponic Vs Soil Based Gardening

Our project was to see if plants grew faster and stronger hydroponically (using only liquids) than when using soil. We used an empty fish tank and converted it to a hydroponic tank and recorded the plants' growth. Overall the hydroponic plants grew faster, but the soil using plants grew stronger, so that proves our hypothesis was half-correct.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1072) How To Filter Water Using Common Materials

In order to solve water shortage problem in emergency situations, a simple and low cost mini filter has been designed and tested using common materials. The results show that 1) the turbidity and solids can be significantly reduced after using this mini filter, indicating the treated water is clean, 2) the cost of this filter is much less than other mini filters. This product is being optimized and being considered to marketed in some areas of the world.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1073) I Want It Now!

The purpose of my experiment was to find out how well children ages 4-8 demonstrate delayed gratification. I wanted to learn what helps children delay gratification. I thought 4 year olds wouldn't demonstrate delayed gratification as well as 5-8 year olds. For my procedure, I tested one boy and one girl aged 4-8, one at a time. Each child sat at a table, while I unwrapped a chocolate and placed it in front of them. I explained to the child they could either eat the chocolate, or they could wait until I returned and have two chocolates. I set a timer for 15 minutes and waited outside the room. I quietly listened to what the child was doing. When the timer beeped, I went back inside. If the child ate the chocolate I thanked them and let them go. If they hadn’t eaten the chocolate, I gave them another. I tested all the children, writing down observations as I went. I repeated my experiment 2 times, and discovered that my hypothesis was incorrect.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1074) Plain Grain Vs Molasses Grain

For my Science Fair Project I tested plain grain (dairy mix) with the same kind of grain but I added liquid molasses to it. I tested three different groups of heifers. Each group had 10 different heifers. I fed the same amount of hay and grain to each group. At feeding time I had two feeding troughs in the first trough was just hay and the plain grain. In the second trough there was hay and the grain with the added liquid molasses. The heifers were turned into the pen at the same time. Most of the heifers always went to the plain grain first. After the plain grain was finished they would then eat the grain with the added molasses. Each group of heifers were tested for ten days. Through my experiment I found out that the heifers preferred the plain grain over the grain that had the added molasses.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1075) Does The Amount Of Mixing Affect How A Cake Bakes?

Does the amount of time a boxed cake mix is mixed affect the way it bakes? I measured cake height and made visual observations about cake texture and taste for three different mixing times. There was an under mixed cake, a cake mixed the recommended time, and an over mixed cake.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1077) Fading Finger Prints

what i did for my project was take 3 fingerprints over a span of 24 hours (1 day) 48 hours (2 days) and 96 hours (4 days) i also took a fourth within a couple minutes to use as a comparison i put each of these 4 fingerprints on ceramic tile, a plastic cup and a plank of cherry wood these prints were merley just the oils on my skin i dusted them by using a fingerprint kit and recorded my data.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1079) Unlocking The Super Strength Of An Eggshell

Are eggshells strong enough to hold a 14 oz. book? Will four eggshells hold one book or more? I will attempt to uncover that a delicate eggshell is really super strong due to its unique design. Each end of an eggshell is dome shaped. A dome is like a number of small arches arranged in a circle. Through my research, I learned that a dome is one of the strongest shapes in architecture. Domes (even those made of eggshells) are strong because they exert horizontal as well as vertical forces to resist the pressure of heavy loads. The crown of an eggshell can support heavy weight because the weight is distributed evenly along the structure of the eggshell. During my experiment, I will attempt to prove my hypothesis by placing seven 14 oz. books, one at a time, on top of four eggshells. The weight of the total stack of books is 6.125 pounds, approximately the weight of an average laying hen who sits on her eggs to incubate them.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-2080) The Accuracy Of Vision Before And After Accommodation To Low Light

The purpose of this experiment is to test the difference in accuracy of color vision before and after human eyes accommodate to low light.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1082) Cilantro Showdown

I grew twelve cilantro plants under three different U.V lights. I had a 120 watt bulb a 75 watt bulb and a 50 watt bulb. I had four plants under each light to see which group would grow the tallest.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1084) Do Plants (Dead Or Alive) Help Stop Erosion?

The purpose of this experiment was to determine how bare soil, soil with decaying matter, and soil with live plants would affect erosion as measured by water clarity, amount of water run-off, and soil lost. I poured equal amounts of water into three bottles containing 1) soil only, 2) soil covered with decaying matter, and 3) soil with live plants growing in it. I then observed the water clarity and measured the amount of water drained through five trials. At the end of the five trials, I also measured the amount of soil lost from each bottle by comparing the current soil line to the beginning soil line. The data showed the plant bottle consistently drained the clearest water, which became clearer with each trial. The bottle with the dead leaves drained the most water (4.5 Tbsp.), and the soil only bottle showed the most erosion (9mm). This experiment demonstrated the importance of plants and their roots in preventing erosion and how even the presence of dead or decaying plants can help.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1086) Flower Pot Heaters: A Source Of Cheap Heat Or Just An Internet Fad?

Do flower pot heaters really work? If so, which one works best? I built and tested two different flower pot heaters and a candle alone to test their effectiveness in the heating of a room. Heater design #1, which had a steel core, worked the best. Heater design #2,which was just a flower pot and a candle, was in second and the candle alone was the least effective. I found that if a flower pot heater is built with a steel core, then it works better than other designs or a candle alone at heating a room.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1087) Music And Concentration

I notice when there is a lot of noise in the classroom, that I can't concentrate very well. I want to see what would happen to concentration when you make a lot of noisy music. I will test concentration with large motor skills, small motor skills and intellectual skills to see if error rates go up with more music and noise.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1088) Reading Fluency Study

Reading fluency is the ability to read words accurately and automatically. Fluency for reading is measured in words per minute you can accurately read. Research shows that the brain starts to slow at age 40.
Hypothesis: Older people will read faster than younger people and girls read faster than boys.
Study procedure included recording age and gender of each reader. All participants read passage and the time for reading as well as the number of correct words were recorded.
Data was entered into Excel spreadsheet and words per minute was calculated and plotted for each participant.
Analysis of results showed older readers do read faster but after about age 40 they appear to start slowing down. The fastest over all reader were boys, not girls. However, female readers do not slow down as fast as male readers do.
A study of older readers above age 40 and out to age 80 would be interesting to determine what happens to reading speed. The age range in this study was age 10 to 55.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1091) Does Exercise Improve Memory?

I studied the effects of exercise on memory. I wanted to know if all the studies that say that exercise has a positive effect on the brain were true. One theory suggests that exercise increases the flow of oxygen to the brain, thus increasing brain cells. Another theory suggests that when exercising, the brain releases brain chemicals such as serotonin which makes us feel happy and when we are happy we think clearer. To test this, I recruited volunteers who took memory tests before and after either exercising or watching TV. The exercising group did better, but only a little bit. I liked my doing my project and had fun.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1093) Gel Beads And Liquids

I wanted to answer the question of whether super absorbent polymer gel beads would grow differently in different liquids. I placed an equal number of gel beads in 100 ml of each of the five liquids. I measured their growth using the displacement method and measured them at 2, 4, and 6 hours. I found that room temperature water was the most efficient followed by chilled water, sugar water and 1% milk with salt water being the least efficient.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1096) Memory Study

I had people from a variety of different ages look in a box of 30 items. They had 15 seconds to look at the items. Afterwards, they had three minutes to write down what they remembered from looking in the box.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1099) Pykrete: Does The Percentage Of Sawdust Matter?

Test the shear strength of different Pykrete samples made with different percentages of sawdust (measured by weight). Determine which of the samples requires the most weight to break in a shear situation.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1102) Gender's Effect On Remembering Clothes

Previous studies have shown that girls have a better visual memory than boys. I wanted to see if this applied to 5th grade boys and girls. The goal was to see over a two day period, if gender had an effect how accurately a student remembered the clothes they were wearing. Data from 30 girls and 30 boys was collected and analyzed. The results showed that 5th grade girls have a better visual memory when it comes to remembering clothes over a two day period compared 5th grade boys.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1103) Cell Phone Bloker

Cell phones have become very popular in the United States and around the world. A cell phone is a mobile device that uses radio frequencies to make and receive phone calls. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile phone operator (AT&T, Verizon, Sprint, etc.) Each carrier has its own frequencies to make phone calls. The mobile phone operator provides access to the public telephone network.

Each cell phone uses two frequencies per call. One frequency for speaking and one for hearing what the other person has to say. In various locations cell phones don’t work. In some locations it is because one or both the frequencies are blocked. I would like to determine will certain materials block the radio frequency.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1105) Egg Staining With Black Liquids

Four black liquids were used for staining egg shell to find out which one makes the strongest stain. Coffee, coke, balsamic vinegar, and soy sauce were used in 1, 5, 12, and 24 hours. In 1 hour, coffee made the strongest stain but the balsamic vinegar took over the first place in longer period of time.
The strength of the stains depends on the ingredients of the liquid not color, smell, or taste. The balsamic vinegar consists of acid and grape juice. The acid makes pores on the surface of the egg shell and the grape juice stains on the porous surface.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1106) Here Comes The Boom

To determine which soda reacts the best and the least with Mentos. I will sturdy a 2 liter bottle of each soda, one at a time. Then drop 2 mentos in the bottle and take pictures of the reaction. Measures the remains by pouring what's left in the 2-liter bottle into a measuring container. Repeat process with each soda type, doing experiment with each soda type 2 times.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1107) Styrofoam: The New Plastic

Millions of styrofoam cups end up in landfills every year. For example, a major US retailer sells about 120,000,000 16 ounce styrofoam cups every year. If 10% are recycled, that’s still 108,000,000 cups in landfills. This equals 4.75 cubic miles of Styrofoam waste that will take over a million years to decompose! This is a serious problem and recyclers need to find a way to reuse styrofoam. My project was to find out if acetone or other household liquids could dissolve Styrofoam to be reused into a new product, so landfill waste is reduced, in a cost-effective way. I found out that heating acetone did make a difference on how fast the styrofoam dissolved, but that on a large scale it was too expensive. Plus right now there is no demand for recycled styrofoam, so most of it goes to the landfill anyway. So my idea of melting the styrofoam and making a new product would be good for two reasons: reducing styrofoam from going to the landfills and creating a new product to sell.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1110) Will The P H Of An Acid Predict The Breakdown Of Exposed Fabrics

I wanted to explore the strength of different acids. To do this I chose 6 different household products that are acidic. The acids I used were acetylsalicylic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid and benzoic acid. These acids varied in pH or strength. I had two samples of each acid and two samples of water. I placed a piece of fabric in each sample solution, including the water, for 24 hours. After which time I removed each sample. I inspected each sample for visual breakdown of the fabric. I then compared the strength of each sample to a dry piece of fabric to see if there was a decrease in fabric strength. I wanted to see if any of the acids would break down the fabric and if the pH would predict how much breakdown there was.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-2116) "Egg" Cellent Eggs

At first, we were thinking on doing an experiment based on engineering. Then our teacher put out some extra ones and we looked at them and saw the one about eggs. It sounded interesting so we picked it. Our hypothesis was based on our background research. We said that the farm fresh eggs are less permeable because of the cuticle. We got 2 different types of eggs farm fresh and store-bought eggs and soaked them in a solution for 24 hours. The farm fresh eggs were the least permeable.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-3118) Why Can't We Breathe?

The topic of our science project was about which city, Layton, Salt Lake City, or Draper has the most oxygen. To answer our question, we found an experiment that showed us how to measure oxygen. Air pollution is a problem in Salt Lake City. This experiment can help people figure out where air pollution is the worst. The hypothesis for this experiment was that if the levels of oxygen in the air are tested, there will be more oxygen in Draper than in Salt Lake City or Layton.
Hand warmers create a chemical reaction between iron and oxygen to create heat. When this happens the oxygen is consumed. So when the hand warmer is put in a glass and placed upside down on a plate of water, as the reaction is eating up the oxygen in the glass, there is a space that needs to be filled. That space is filled with water. Basically the empty space makes a vacuum and sucks the water on the plate into the glass. The more oxygen there is in the air, the higher the water rises.
The independent variable was how much oxygen was in the air. The dependent variable was how far the water went up the glass. The data only supported half of our hypothesis because Draper had more oxygen than Salt Lake City, but Layton had the same amount as Draper. To improve the hypothesis, more research needs to be done about the pollution causing factors in those cities.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1120) The Science Of Scoring

As a striker for my soccer team, I wanted to know where on the field is the best place to shoot that will give me the highest percentage to score a goal. My experiment tests shots from different areas on a soccer field to see where is the best place to shoot to score more goals.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1123) Reaction Time

As a soccer player who values the benefit of quick reaction time during a game I thought it would be interesting to determine if reaction time could be improved through exercise. Tests were completed on several subjects at the beginning of the experiment to determine a baseline evaluation. For the next 6 weeks the subjects did a series of exercises to determine if their reaction time improved in any way. The same test was given at the end of the 6 week period to determine results.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-2124) Simon Says...Memory

How do males and females differ in short term memory? This project tested over 100 subjects using the popular electronic game, Simon Says. Each subject had an opportunity to play the game and have their gender, age, and score recorded for our data collection.


[Chemistry] (1CH-2125) The Tooth Truth

Our project is about the effect certain liquids have on teeth. First we got the teeth and put them in the liquids then every week we checked the teeth and refilled the liquids. On the last week we took the teeth out and had to examine them.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1126) Pencil Resistors

The purpose of this project is to make a pencil resistor. We are also experimenting which pencil lead has the most resistance. Circuits that are designed for a limited flow or electricity are fitted with an electronic unit called a resistor. A resistor slows down the flow of electricity . Resistors can be used in dimmer switches and fan regulators. If the current is too strong then it can damage the LED or the bulb filament. Therefore resistors are useful in limiting the current so that just right amount of current flows though an LED or a bulb to light it up.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1127) How To Make The Perfect Oatmeal Cookie

What I did about my science fair project was "How to Make the Perfect Oatmeal Cookie?" What I did was I made two different cookie dough's.
The first one I baked right after I made the cookie dough. The second one I refrigerated it. I found out more people liked the refrigerated cookie dough more. I thought more people liked the refrigerated cookie dough more because it had time to soak up the wet ingredients so it turned out more fluffy and soft. I found out I liked the fresh baked cookie dough more than the refrigerated cookie dough. And that's what my science fair project was about.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1130) Can A Plant Grow In Vinegar?

My project is about if a plant can grow in vinegar.My hypothesis was the plant growing in water will live longer because the ingredients in vinegar are:apple cider vinegar (dulted with 5% acidy). A plant, I don't think can grow in acid and apple cider.What I did is I bought two plants of the same type and grew one in water and the other in vinegar .The plant growing in vinegar only lived for about two weeks then stared too die .The plant growing in water is still growing right as we speak.So my hypothesis was correct the plant growing in vinegar did die.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1131) Paw Preference In Pets

My project was in paw preference in pets so basically what I did was I tested four dogs and most of them had a paw preference and something I found out was all the girl dogs were right pawed and the boy dog was left pawed it seemed cool to me. My hypothesis was right dogs do have a paw preference so I also found out that dogs are some what like humans and they might have more stuff the same so that's what makes that so interesting I might do more stuff like this.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1132) Burning Fabric

I wanted to do burning fabrics because my dad is a fireman and I want him to be safe and teachers will most likely to go in to a fire to save kids so they should ware fire resistant clothing.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1133) Crystals

Learning about crystals. I explored principles of solubility, saturation, and crystal nucleation by using common household water-soluble substances. I used six substances: table salt, baking soda, cream of tartar, snow melt, cane sugar, and root inhibitor. Question: Does the solubility of a substance affect the rate of crystal growth?


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-2134) "Slopes"

OUR PROJECT WILL SHOWS HOW HILLSIDE EROSION IS AFFECTED BY ROCKS, WATER, TERRACE STEPS AND AGABION CAGE


[Chemistry] (1CH-2135) 5 Second Rule

We dropped wet and dry foods on the ground to see what one would grow the most bacteria. The surfaces we dropped them on were the carport the kitchen floor and the grass.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1136) Plastic Bag Waste

I was attempting to save the plastic bag waste on the environment by seeing how many people filled up their bags completely. I also saw how much plastic bags could be filled up.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1138) Which Paper Makes The Best Airplane

I folded 4 different types of paper: newspaper, card stock, printer paper and construction paper. I used the same folds for the airplanes with each of the kinds of paper and measured how far they flew.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1139) South Or West? Which Way Is Best To Face Solar Panels?

I set up a solar panel and a watt meter in an open place facing either south or west every morning before the sun rose. I waited until the sun went down each day and measured how many watt hours it collected over the day. I did this for six days, 3 days facing south, and 3 days facing west and found the average watt hours measured in each direction.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1140) Does It Make Sense?

I have a neurological disorder called Sensory Processing Disorder. As a result some of the input gathered by my senses is not always processed in my brain correctly which effects my concentration on homework. I learned that I can do Sensory Resets before doing my homework to reset my brain and help it to recognize sensory input. Once my brain is reset, I am able to concentrate better on my homework. I did 3 weeks of testing to see if this would be true and hypothesized that Sensory Reset would improve my concentration by 80%. I found out that doing a sensory reset before homework improved my concentration by 100%.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1145) Muscle Memory

I performed my project on Muscle Memory. Muscle Memory is not actually inside your muscles, but widespread throughout the brain. My research showed that Muscle Memory was supposedly real but I still had to test it to see. My resarch also showed that with more practice, your muscles would slowly start moving quicker and more smoothly because your brain remembers how to move that muscle. To execute my study, I shot free throws because I play basketball a lot and I like wanted to see if practice really did help in people's shots or dribbling. So I shot 100 free throws with my eyes open and then 100 free throws with my eyes closed for 5 studies. On the first and last trials, I tested to identify if Muscle Memory could last over the space of a day or two with enough practice. My data showed that with my eyes closed, each test my percentage got slightly better except for one where it stayed the same. With my eyes open, it increased and then decreased a little. So I concluded that Muscle Memory was real and that with gaps in between shooting that your Muscle Memory weakens and can't perform as well. I also concluded that muscle straining activities during the day can weaken your muscles so that you won't be able to get accurate enough results. I had heard Muscle Memory used before in words and I wanted to test if it would help me get better at basketball.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1150) Lights Out! Photodegradation And Food Preservation

The purpose of my project was to determine if food will decompose faster in light or in the dark. To answer this question, I performed research to determine under which conditions microbes grow best on food. This led me to develop my hypothesis that food kept in the light will decompose fastest.

I designed an experiment to test my hypothesis, in which I placed two strawberries of approximately equal size in the center of two different boxes with lids. One box had no light, and the other box was equipped with a stick-on LED light, which was attached to the center of the lid, directly over the strawberry. I placed the lids on the boxes, and observed them each day. The light was kept on constantly. I repeated this experiment three times.

My experiment demonstrated that my hypothesis was correct. Photodegradation is the process in which the energy made by a light will chemically change the temperature, color, and nutrients in food. Photodegradation caused the strawberries which were kept in boxes with lights in them to decompose fastest each time the experiment was conducted.

My project has interesting real-world applications. I now realize one reason why the lights in our refrigerators turn off when the door is closed--to prevent photodegradation. Keeping our food in the dark helps us to keep our food fresh longer, and helps us to save money by avoiding wasted food.

This experiment was conducted in my school science lab, with all appropriate permissions.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1152) What Is The Effect Of Caffeine On Heart Rate?

Have you ever wondered when you drink that cup of coffee, or that caffeinated soda or energy drink what effect it has on your heart rate. I wanted to know if caffeine had a negative effect on people. The purpose of this project is to determine if caffeine makes our heart rate increase.

A group of people ages 20-82 were selected to participate and to be both the experimental and control groups to see the effects of caffeine. They were tested with both using a caffeinated beverage as well as a placebo. Myself being the only one who knew what they were consuming. After taking their resting pulse rates, they were tested at 15, 30 and 45 minutes after they had drank the beverage.I used the same people for testing because no two people are the same and also recorded their normal caffeine consumption habits. Those that consumed regularly had minimal effect and those who never had caffeine had a slight increase.I would have used higher amounts of caffeine but did not want anyone to suffer adverse reactions to the caffeine.

After the data was graphed and conclusions were drawn it turned out that not many people were effected by the caffeine. I learned that moderation is the key and in most people if you stay in this level will not suffer the side effects. In future studies I would increase the number of participants and the amount of caffeine.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1153) Is Drinking Water A Luxury?

finding an affordable yet efficient way to purify water to address the issue of drinkable water scarcity in third world countries.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1154) Balloon Lift

Can balloons really lift a child into the sky? I was interested in this project after watching the movie Up. I conducted an experiment to see how many balloons it would take to lift a child, cat, tortoise, and teenager into the sky.
I read a book on science projects, and I was interested on the experiment on how many helium balloons it would take to lift a child.
The purpose of this project was to find out how many helium balloons it would take to lift a heavy object.
When air filled objects are under water they float back up, this is called buoyancy. Helium is lighter than air, and air is lighter than water. Air weighs about 1.25 grams, when helium weighs .18 grams. A balloon that is one foot holds about ½ a cubic foot of helium. So a balloon in the air is like air under water, it floats up to the surface.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1155) I'm Melting

What substance will help ice melt the fastest: salt, pepper, hot sauce, fertilizer or sugar?


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-3156) Shattered In Space

We took tubes made of different materials and dipped them in liquid nitrogen then smacked them with a wooden sledge hammer. We did this to test which material would be best for building space ships as it is very cold in outer space. We thought the stainless steel would be affected least by the cold because it is a strong metal.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1158) Can You Remember?

Abstract
How age group effects memory has been studied. This experiment could answer frequently asked questions about the human mind. Age group could possibly effect memory more than considered. The project was done by giving six digit numbers to the sixth and eighth grade girls. Each of them had one minute to memorize their different numbers. Afterward, they were asked their number twice on two different days during the week. If one of them got it wrong it could drop their grades percentage of accuracy.
Next, scoring took place. Some girls mixed up their numbers, forgot their numbers, or answered correctly. Mostly the girls who remembered their digits the first time, also did the second. Sixth grade girls received 7out of 10 day one, and 5 out of 10 on day 2. Eighth grade girls got 3 out of 4 on day 1 and day 2.
The hypothesis was accepted because eighth grade received a higher score than sixth grade by 15%. As you get older, your brain is able to store more until a certain age. Teachers could use this information to realize why some of their students may be struggling with memory.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1159) Do More Programs Slow Computers Down?

My sisters and I share the same computer and when we are done, we leave our programs open. But when that happens, sometimes the programs seems slow or stop working altogether. So I wondered if having additional programs open actually slows computers down.

My hypothesis was that the computers would slow down more after more programs were opened.

First, I opened the program that I would use to run the tests. Next, I opened one more program on the computer and ran the tests again. I then opened two more programs and ran the tests, and after that I opened two more programs and ran the tests once more. Then I repeated the procedure on three more computers. Each time, I measured how long the computer took to do the tests.

The results surprised me. Two of the four computers I tested actually increased in speed after the last two programs were open! The other two computers I tested fit my hypothesis.

In conclusion, my hypothesis was both correct and incorrect because two of the computers actually got faster during the last test. I concluded that it depends on many factors, including the amount of memory in the computer, the operating system, and the age of the computer.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1160) Flaming Chemicals

My project is about burning different things. I used pine shavings and butane for this experiment. My flames were not the same size, so my info/data is off by a large amount of degrees. I had to use a different size heat because i could not control the butane or wood flame.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1161) Does High Traffic Make Air Quality Worse?

My project tells how high traffic makes air quality worse. I measured the pollution by using cardboard and tape. I put tape on the cardboard and came back to the different places after three days and measured how many particles were on the box.
Based on my findings, we found that the places with the highest levels of traffic had the most dust and pollution particles.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-2162) Testing Your Taste Buds

Abstract
The idea of this project was to determine if children were more sensitive to sugar or sweet taste as compared to adults. We hypothesized that since younger people have more taste buds, the children would like the sweet items more. We prepared a brownie mix with the standard amount of sugar called for in the recipe and another mix using a sugar replacement for half of the sugar. Other than the amount of sugar used, both brownies were cooked using an identical recipe. We then gave a bite size sample of each to 20 adults and 20 children. We gave each sample randomly. Each person then answered the question as to which one was sweeter or did the samples taste about the same. The results were very similar between the two age groups as in both cases about 75% of both groups preferred the brownie with more sugar. We concluded that our hypothesis was not correct. In reviewing our results, we have ideas as to why the results were as we found, which could be the subject of future study.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1165) Tomatoes Tomatoes Tomatoes

I wanted to know what would happen if I used different types of manure for fertilizer for tomato plants. I took year old manure from our pig pen, chicken coop and cow corral and then mixed them with the same type of soil. I planted each type of manure into different containers and placed the three containers on our deck in the sun. After watching the tomatoes grow all summer, I found out that the pig manure made the plant very large and deep green. The pig manure plant also produced the largest. The cow manure plant did well overall but nothing outstanding. The chicken manure plant never looked very healthy, however it produced the most tomatoes of all three plants.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1166) The Baseball Debate: Wood Or Aluminum?

My project is to determine whether a Aluminum or Wooden baseball bat makes a baseball travel further.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1169) Best Bass Rosin

I experimented with this question in mind: “Which bow rosin produces the loudest sound on the D string of a double bass?” First, I placed tape on the ground and table to set where the bass and sound level meter were located. Second, I twist the adjusting screw on the bow, five times. I tuned my double bass. Then, I used the “rosin” rag to wipe off any leftover rosin, on my bow, from past performances (I swiped up and down 10 times each direction). I then played the A string (pushing down really hard) 60 times, up and down. I wiped the strings down using the “string rag”. I rubbed rosin on the bow, in a downward stroke, 10 times. I calibrated the sound level meter and pressed the MAX/MIN button. Then, with the bow on the D string, I and drew out one full bow stroke (down). After, with the bow on D string, again, I drew out one full bow stroke (up). Both measurements were recorded. I repeated above steps 2 more times. Then, using 2 more different rosins, I made sure to repeat the steps three times per rosin. Looking at the graphed data, I noticed that the numbers measured in decibels were clustered closely. It gave me the impression that they probably had similar ingredients. My hypothesis was that by using the Nyman-Harts brand, I would get the biggest sound. My hypothesis was not supported by the data.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-2170) Knock On Wood

We wanted to know which type of wood is the strongest. Our hypothesis was if we hit a nail into wood, the wood that weighs the most would be the hardest to put the nail in. We weighed all the wood pieces that were the same size. Then we measured the nails and marked it 7/8 of an inch. Then we hit the nails into different kinds of wood and counted how many times it took to hit the nail to make it all the way to the 7/8 inch mark on the nail. We learned that Hickory wood was the hardest to hit the nail in and it was the wood that weighed the most. Our hypothesis was correct.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1174) Will A Trebuchet Launch Farther With A Longer Or Shorter Arm?

I built a trebuchet out of pvc pipe. I thought that if it had a longer arm, it would launch an object farther. But as I tested my hypothesis, I found that a shorter arm launched farther.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1175) Iron For Breakfast

Four different breakfast cereals were tested, to see how much iron they contained. According with the nutrition facts labels, cereals with 100%, 80%, 50%, and 25% of iron were chosen. Four cereals were blended with warm and hot water; they were poured in plastic bags and black spots of iron were attracted with a magnet. On the first try, warm water was used to blend the cereals. In the cereals with 25% and 50% of iron percentages, no iron was found. In the 80% and 100%, some iron was found. On the second try, hot water was used to blend the cereals. In the cereal with 25%, ¼ of an inch of iron was found. In the 50%, 1/16 of an inch of iron was found. In the 80%, 1/8 of an inch of iron was found. In the 100%, ½ of an inch of iron was found. The hypothesis said that if iron is magnetic, and if there are different iron percentages on cereals nutrition facts labels, then the prediction was that cereal with high percentage of iron has more iron in it and will be more attracted to the magnet. The hypothesis was accepted because when the cereals were tested with warm water, the 100% iron percentage had the most iron than the other percentages. When the cereals were tested with hot water, 3 out of 4 cereals got more iron than with warm water, and the cereal with 100% iron had the most iron in it.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1176) Why Are The Apples Brown?

I did my science fair project on what keeps apples from browning. I used different liquids and juices to determine which one worked the best. I used salt water, sugar water, lemon juice, orange juice, pineapple juice, white grape juice, cranberry juice, vinegar, and sprite. I poured five milliliters of a liquid onto an apple slice and had ten apple slices. One of them was the control and had nothing on it. Each apple slice had a different liquid on it. I left them out for an hour and then recorded what order they were brown in from the least brown, to the most brown. Then I repeated it two more times the exact same way each of the three times.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1178) To Grow Or Not To Grow

I like gardening so I decided to do an experiment with plants. My hypothesis was that second generation cilantro seeds will have the same amount of vigor as first generation seeds. I planted cilantro in the summer and harvested the seeds. Then I planted the first generation seeds and the second generation seeds. Every other day I measured the planted seeds. I measured the vigor using height, leaf count and number of spouts. I watered 1 tablespoon at first then I watered 1 teaspoon. My data showed that you can save cilantro seeds, but they may not grow well.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1180) What Insulation Material Is Most Effective For Retaining Heat?

This project examined which type of insulation materials effectively holds in the most heat. Heat retention of Styrofoam, wool, fiberglass, cotton, and aluminum were compared. Each material was measured to have same weight and covered the same area to assure densities were equal. I hypothesize that fiberglass will retain heat the best because it can catch air between the multitudes of layers of spun glass and prevents heat from traveling through it.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1181) Can Increase In Blood Sugar Affect Our Heart Rate?

My project attempts to show a correlation between blood sugar and heart rate.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1184) Fallout!: Background Radiation And Building Materials

Background: Beta radiation is a harmless radiation made up of ionizing partials.You can watch this radiation in a cloud chamber. I thought that concrete would block this radiation, but I wanted to test it to see if that was true.
Methods: I used instructions that I found online to build a cloud chamber. Then I tested using the cloud chamber in my front room then in my cold storage that has nine inch thick concrete walls. As I did this testing I recorded what I saw. I recorded this in tracks; one track is equal to one particle of beta radiation.
Results: After my testing I found that the concrete significantly decreased the amount of radiation. I found that the average for my living room was 36 tracks per test and in the cold storage it was only 16.34. So the concrete reduced the radiation by 64.54%.
Conclusion: I concluded that with thick concrete walls you can block radiation.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-2187) The Best Chocolate Chip Cookies

A yummy warm chocolate chip cookie has a way of brightening anyone's day. But not just any cookie. There is a scientific secret to making the best chocolate chip cookie whether it is Grandma's special recipe or good old Toll House.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1188) Music Beats

I am testing to see if the tempo of music can change your heart rate.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1191) Rocket Nozzle Design

My question was will a rocket nozzle with two plenums generate more thrust than with one plenum? My hypothesis was the rocket nozzle with two plenums will generate more thrust than a nozzle with one plenum because higher pressure will build up in the second plenum to create more thrust when the gases are released. In the first plenum, the gases shoot out of the nozzle at supersonic speeds. If you add a second plenum, the gases that shot out of the first plenum will be trapped again in the second plenum, thereby generating a higher pressure at the exit (pe). The higher pressure should generate more thrust. If you produce more thrust your rocket will fly higher. I had three treatments: 1.)a D size rocket engine with one plenum, 2.)a D size rocket engine with two plenums,
3.) a control D size rocket engine with no plenum. I performed thrust computer model simulations to decide the dimensions for my rocket nozzles. I made my plenums, launched the rocket, and calculated the height with an altimeter. The rockets with the double plenum nozzle design flew higher than the other two treatments. The control treatment flew higher than the one plenum nozzle. The highest rocket was 17.72 meters (58.15 feet) above the ground, and the lowest was 3.67 meters (12.04 feet) above the ground. My hypothesis was correct. The double plenum nozzle generated more thrust because the rockets flew higher with this nozzle design than the other nozzle treatments.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1198) Better Picture: Better Camera Or Your Reception

In this project I want to answer these questions:
1. Is the better camera always better at different scenes?
2. Will the camera information affect people's opinion on picture's quality?
3. How does it affect kids and adults?
I took groups of pictures at the same scene with different cameras using automatic mode. Pictures were printed without any touch up. Then I asked adults and children to rank the pictures without telling them the camera information. At a later time, I asked people again but told them which camera was used to take the picture.
The result showed that the more expensive camera is better at the night scene, but not as much at day time. Knowing which camera took which picture does affect people's judgement. Children are more influenced by the camera information. The impact on adults is mixed.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1199) We Boil At Different Degrees

This experiment was to test if the density of a liquid changes the temperature that it will boil


[Chemistry] (1CH-1201) Wax On Wax Off

Skiers are always discussing what type of wax they are going to put on their skis. Does the type of wax you put on your skis really matter if you are trying to ski faster?
I used several different waxes to determine if the type of wax really mattered. I put 3 different types of wax on the bottom of a ski, and then tested different temperatures to see which wax was the fastest by timing an ice cube going down the base at the same elevation.
I determined that the type of wax does matter if you are wanting to ski fast.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1202) Heart Health Bmi (Body Mass Index) And Blood Pressure

Is there a direct correlation between blood pressure which is used to measure heart health and Body Mass Index which is used to measure overall health? I measured both on 10 subjects and compared the two and looked for a pattern.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-2204) Compact Disc Balloon Hovercraft/ What Surface Has The Least Friction?

PURPOSE: We want to learn about friction and how a hovercraft works. We want to make a hovercraft out of a CD.

QUESTION: On what surface will our CD hovercraft go the farthest?

RESEARCH:

1. Merriam-Webster Children’s Dictionary.
Friction – the rubbing of one thing against another, resistance to motion between bodies in contact. p. 324

2. http://www.ehow.com/info_8730173_paper-science-fair-project-ideas.html
Newton's third law of motion states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. In the case of the hovercraft, the initial action is the flow of air, which the balloon projects downward toward the table. As the balloon squeezes the air out, the pressure under the CD increases. The opposite reaction is the hovercraft off the surface of the table. The hovercraft reacts to the movement of air out of the balloon by hovering upward against the force of gravity.

3. Cub Scout Webelos Handbook, Boy Scouts of America, 404-405.
Bernoulli’s Principle: “The pressure of a moving gas decreases as its speed increases.”

HYPOTHESIS: We think our hovercraft will go the farthest on hardwood floor, second best on carpet, the next farthest on the snow, the worst on cement.

EXPERIMENT:

Materials: CD, 40 balloons, water bottle cap, E6000 glue, styrofoam cup, cement, carpet, hardwood floor, snow, measuring tape.

Procedure: First we made our hovercraft. We took a CD and a water bottle cap, and glued them together with the E6000 glue. We cut a styrofoam cup so that the balloon would not flop over the sides. Next, we tried our hovercraft on each surface, blowing up new balloons to 30in around. Last, we measured the distances traveled.

RESULTS:

averages:
Hardwood floor: 83.6 inches
Carpet: 0 inches
Cement: 25.2 inches
Snow: 0 inches

CONCLUSION: We were right about the Hardwood Floor, because we thought it would go the farthest. However, we were wrong about the Carpet and the Cement. We thought that the hovercraft would go farther on the Carpet than the Cement, but the hovercraft didn’t even move on the carpet or the Snow.
If we did this again we would use smoother snow, we would also do ice and not do the carpet. We could do different surfaces, like plastic or metal.
Waterslides, and bobsleds use friction just like hovercrafts. Hovercrafts need less friction to move, so the smooth Hardwood floor has less friction than the Carpet and the Snow. The Snow has little bumps so the hovercraft would have a harder time moving. The smoother and slipperier the surfaces, the less friction.


[Chemistry] (1CH-2205) Chewy Gooey Gummy Hair

What chemical removes gum out of hair fastest?


[Chemistry] (1CH-1206) What Gum Blows The Biggest Bubbles

The purpose of my experiment was to determine what brand of bubble gum generates the largest bubbles. My methodology was to use four different kinds of bubble gum that were the same weight, have four people chew the gum for 10 minutes and then blow five bubbles that I measured and recorded. This process was repeated for each brand of bubble gum. I then figured out the average bubble size for each brand. My results showed that Bazooka won, by a big difference. When I looked at the ingredients for the four different bubble gums I saw that the Bazooka had a different second ingredient, glucose syrup, than the other three brands which had gum base as a second ingredient. For Bazooka, gum base was listed as the third ingredient, meaning that Bazooka had less gum base than the other brands, as well as glucose syrup. I decided that Bazooka having less gum base, when mixed with saliva for 10 minutes, made the gum more soft and flexible, so it made bigger bubbles. If I did this experiment again, I would compare the Bazooka to three different brands of bubble gum with different ingredients to see if the Bazooka still produced the biggest bubbles.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1207) How To Prevent Sunburns

WHAT PRODUCTS TODAY HELP PREVENT SUNBURNS.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1209) Smoke Safety

Do smoke alarms wake up children? I tested if children wake up to smoke alarms and compared it to children waking to their mother's voice.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1210) Thermal Insulation

My project studied four different cup materials to determine which material provided the best thermal insulation. I did this by heating a liquid and pouring equal parts in each cup and then taking the temperature at timed intervals to see if there was any change. The results were graphed and compared for my conclusion.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-2213) Avalanche Prediction

An avalanche occurs when there is unstable snow in the snowpack and a force triggers a slide. Our goal with this experiment was to determine whether we could accurately predict the level at which the snowpack would break in an avalanche. This is important because there are, on average, 30 deaths per year in the United States due to avalanches and we spend a lot of time skiing in the mountains. We dug a snow pit and used the Snow Scale to determine the stability of each layer of the snowpack and used this information to make our predictions. We used the Extended Isolated Column Compression Test to test the snowpack stability and determine the layer at which the snow breaks. We found that despite careful techniques and measurements, avalanche occurrence is unpredictable. It is easy to see that the snow is unstable but difficult to predict exactly where the snowpack will break. Therefore caution and safe travel techniques are always wise in the mountains.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-3217) Owl Pellets

Do Owls in different parts of the US consume different foods based on environment, animal migration, weather, and other factors.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1219) Melting Ice

Which household products will melt ice fastest?


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1220) Simple Machines Can Make A Balloon Box Go Further

Simple machines can be used to reduce friction and newtons first law, allowing a box to be propelled by a balloon further than without the machines at all.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1221) Cheesy Greens

I took 10 different kinds of cheese and I put them in plastic bags in a dark closet. They were all put into a container to see how long it would take for them to mold.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1227) A River Runs Through It

My experiment involved testing water from 5 different lakes/dams along the Salt River in Arizona. I was trying to figure out if the water quality lessons as it travels down the system of dams. Dams are built to provide water storage, hydroelectric power, and to control river flow. I tested for Nitrite 02, Nitrate 02, Nitrate 03, Ammonia #1, Ammonia #2, pH, high range pH, Coliform, and E-Coli. The data showed that the final 2 lakes in the chain of dams were more polluted, but only by a small amount in pH and Nitrate 03. PH shows the balance between acidic and alkaline. Nitrate 03 is a form of Nitrogen and can affect plants and animals.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-2230) Oh, The Soils You'll Find!

In this experiment, we found out that if we use clay, rock, and sand base as soil bases for structures in the occasion of an earthquake, clay and sand will make the structure more stable (in this case).


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1232) Me, Myself And Eyes

Eye color genes are a fun topic to learn. this experiment on eye color was created because people always ask what will my child's eye color be? While doing this experiment the research says you can! In the sheet that was used to determine eye color there were questions used such as dad's eye color, mom' eye color, and your eye color. In this next paragraph you will learn facts about the eye. Some results that were learned are very cool. Did you know that if you come from an African american or Hispanic race, you would have black or brown eyes? this is important because you can learn more about your ancestors. In the hypothesis I predicted that eye color can be determined. The hypothesis was accepted.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1233) Fruit And Vegetable Batteries

Both fruits and vegetables produce electricity. I pushed the copper plate into the fruit or vegetable and then pushed the zinc screw into the fruit or vegetable. With the use of the multimeter I was able to read the voltage.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-2238) Do You Need An Altitude Adjustment?

We knew we wanted to do a science project on exercise, and in talking with our parents we talked about how athletes train at high altitudes to help them compete. We learned why this is an advantage, and thought it would be interesting to see how altitude affected us when exercising. So we turned this thought into our experiment.
“Who does altitude affect more when exercising, adults or children?’
We learned how oxygen is carried in our bodies, and how your body can adapt to higher altitudes by producing more red blood cells, which has hemoglobin. This is what carries oxygen throughout our bodies.
We thought of a few exercises that would help increase our heart rate quickly. So we decided on running a short distance fast and jumping in place 200 times without stopping.
Some of our results were surprising to us, like when a few peoples oxygen actually increased at a higher altitude…maybe they didn’t work as hard as the other person, or maybe it was an error on the part of the person writing down the data.
Our hypothesis is that we thought the altitude would affect children more than adults, but there wasn’t a huge difference. So we came to the conclusion that it affects adults and children equally.
We had a great time doing this experiment; it was fun cheering on everyone when they were doing their portion of exercising.
So, do we need an altitude adjustment? Possibly, if you want to compete in athletics, then you would be smart to move to the mountains.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1239) Oxidation

What is the effect of different liquids on steel wool. What is the rate of oxidation?


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1240) Does Eating Breakfast Improve Your Memory

I tested people two different times using memory games. One time they were tested with eating breakfast. Another time they were tested without eating breakfast... this time using similar, but different, sets of games. I found that eating breakfast does improve your memory.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-2244) Musical

Our project is about what background music makes people complete math problems the fastest. We decided to do three types of music: rock, classical, and lullabies to test our question. We tested seven people and found that the most people got their fasted time listening to classical music in the background.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1248) Where Do The Bubbles Come From?

Have you ever wondered what makes the bubbles in soda? I did and learned about an amazing process called fermentation. I hypothesized that different types of sugars ferment at different rates. I made an apparatus using mason jars and plastic tubes to measure carbon dioxide production, a product of fermentation. The order that the sugars fermented in during the experiment was different than in my hypothesis, but the sugars did ferment at different rates and intensities. I learned about the chemistry behind fermentation and discuss and demonstrate it in my project.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1254) "Don't Go Bananas!"

My project is about how different packaging preserves fruit for the longest period of time. In my project, I used bananas and tested them in plastic bags, paper bags, and cardboard boxes to see which one would keep the fruit fresh for the longest time and prevent it from spoiling. I observed the process for a period of two weeks and documented the results against my hypothesis.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1256) Can Dogs See In Color

I chose to do my science fair project on whether dogs can see all colors. Dogs see more than just black and white but can they see the same colors we do? I tested three dogs on color vision by putting a treat under a colored cup and watching to see if they found it. The dogs seemed to see the colors and picked the right colors more than other colors, but the result wasn't as strong as I expected. It's possible that there wasn't enough time to train the dogs or perhaps some of the dogs were just too young. The older dog seemed to have more patience than the younger dogs. In conclusion, I found that according to my hypothesis dogs do see the colors blue and yellow.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1258) Ready, Set, Rrrring! (Distracted Driving)

Does talking on the phone or listening to music effect driving, negative or positive?


[Chemistry] (1CH-1261) Fruity, Fire, And Ice…what Is Happening In My Mouth

Abstract
Problem Statement--Does different flavors of chewing gum--mint, fruity, or cinnamon change the temperature of your mouth?
Procedure--I arranged for 11 people to chew each flavor of gum. I took their temperature before after chewing the gum. I collected the information on a table. I had them chew the gum for 3 minutes then I took their temperature.
Results--I found out that gum did not really change the temperature of your mouth. Many people's temperature increased because they were chewing with involves motion.
Conclusion--I found that my hypothesis was not correct. I learned through my research that chemicals such as TRPM8 and Cinnamaldahyde caused the feelings in your mouth to change, but not the temperature. They tricked your brain!


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1262) The Power Of Coins

Batteries can be made from household items. All you need to have is two types of metal, some paper towels, and a salt water solution. For my experiment I will determine which salt water solution makes the best electrolyte.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1264) What The Heck Happened To My Balloons

My purpose is to show how temperature affects the volume of gas in a balloon. So the next time I have balloons I will probably keep them in a warm area so they will stay bigger and last longer.My hypothesis is that both the helium and air balloons will react the same. Then the balloon that is in the heat will expand and eventually pop, because in my research I found that air molecules when heated move faster and further apart from each other. Therefore when an air filled balloon is placed in a cold area the balloon will shrink because the air molecules start to move slower and closer together. What I did for my procedure was I filled balloons with helium and air. I used a tape measure to make sure they all started at the same size which was 69cm.Then placed balloons in a cold area, a warm area, and at room temperature, for 30 minutes. So after 30 minutes I measured the balloons again to see if my hypothesis was correct. Most of the balloons reacted the way I thought they would, except the helium balloons in the heat did not expand. I discovered that helium and air filled balloons do not react the same in different temperatures.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1265) Quarter Questions

For a long time, my family has collected state quarters and loved the excitement of not knowing which quarter we would get for change at a store. I therefore studied the question, “Which state quarter will appear most often in a sample of 400 quarters from 10 banks around Salt Lake City?”

From January 1999 to November 2008, the United States Mint printed quarters for each state. They printed a different number of quarters for each state depending on how many quarters they needed to be in circulation at that time. The order of the printing was based on the order of statehood.

I thought that the Virginia state quarter would appear the most because the U.S. Mint printed the most of them, even though it was printed back in 2000. I was also thinking about hypothesizing that we would find the most Utah quarters because I assumed that they sent the most Utah quarters to Utah.

We drove around to banks that were around Salt Lake City, Utah, and turned in ten dollars for a roll of quarters. Overall, we ended up going to ten different banks and getting ten rolls of quarters.

Massachusetts was the quarter I found most in my random sample, and it was the seventh most produced state quarter. Virginia, the quarter that I hypothesized would appear the most, ended up tying for fourth, in my sample. My hypothesis was incorrect, but my reasoning was fairly accurate.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1268) Materials & Traveling Sound Waves

Materials & Traveling Sound Waves
2014 Science Fair Project
By Carlos Rodgers – West Kearns Elementary

My question: What materials will allow the most amount of sound to travel through it while maintaining its quality?

My Hypothesis: Less dense materials will allow the most amount of sound to travel through it while maintaining its quality.

Experiment: I hooked up to a microphone and recorder, to test how sound travels through different materials. I uploaded the fours sample sounds into a computer and put the sounds together and then played them through my mp3 player. Then, I hooked my mp3 player to a small portable speaker.
The sample sounds were first played across the open air as my control. The materials tested were a cherry wood board, an aluminum rod, a nylon rope, a 1¼ inch PVC pipe, a 1¼ pine wood dowel, a hollow galvanized steel pipe, a ¾ inch hemp rope, a ¼ inch insulated electrical wire, and a tub of water. I put the sounds into a sound program so I could see their sound waves. I then carefully listened to the different sections of sound and made an audio comparison to the volume and quality of the control.

Conclusion: Part of my hypothesis was correct in that the materials that were less dense had the best quality of sound passing through them. But the volume of sound traveling through the different materials that were denser actually amplified the volume, but the quality was not as good.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-2271) Taste The Rainbow

Our question was which types of candy can someone with food dye allergies safely eat. This project analyzes the dyes used in several types of candy and snacks in order to discover which foods include FD&C Yellow #5 and #6. These dyes can cause allergic reactions in some people so we used a gel electrophoresis chamber to break down the dyes used into individual colors.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1272) Flat Wings Vs. Bernoulli's Principle

The lift capabilities of various flat wing cores are compared to standard wing shapes. Wing cores of three different thickness and widths are tested on a balance mechanism in a wind tunnel at varying angles of attack. The results are compared to a standard airfoil at the same airspeed and angles of attack.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1276) Solar Water Heater

My experiment was to see if water could be heated outdoors in Utah's cold winter, using solar energy, during different times of the day. In my hypothesis, I stated that “Solar energy cannot be used to heat water to 105 degrees F in winter at any time of day.” I chose "105 degrees F" because that is the average bath water.

I built a solar water heater using a large plastic storage container and plastic piping. I filled the pipe with cold water and put the container outside, in the sun. I kept the box outside for two hours, and then measured the water's temperature. The water was put outside at three different times of the day; morning, afternoon, evening. I repeated this for three days.

My hypothesis was incorrect because at every reading, the temperature exceeded 105 degrees F. The highest temperature reached in one of the readings was 140 degrees F.

In conclusion, I found out that an easy, cheap, and effective way to heat water is using solar energy. The water was much hotter than the average bathwater temperature of 105 degrees F. This was possible even in the middle of winter, no matter the time of day, provided that sunshine was heating the water. I think that solar water heaters are an efficient option, and if more people used them, it could help the valley’s air quality.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1277) Frozen

This experiment examined different temperatures of water and how fast they froze. The purpose of this experiment was to find out if hot water freezes before cold water. My hypothesis was that if an equal volume of hot water or cold water was exposed to freezing temperatures, then the hot water would freeze first because hot water is less dense than cold water. Five test groups at different starting temperatures were frozen. The temperature of the water and observations were recorded. I found out that hot water freezes the fastest. I did this project because I had heard many theories about whether or not hot water freezes before cold water, so I wanted to find out if it was true. I believe that my science experiment met my standards and was very successful.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1282) Eyewitnesses: Who Are The Best?

What age group makes the best eyewitnesses at a crime scene? I wanted to find out the answer to this question by having a few people from each age group view a crime scene from a video clip and ask them questions about what they saw. I would then compare the results of their answers and see which group got the most answers correct. Based upon my research, I made a hypothesis that 9 to 15 years olds would more likely be better eyewitnesses than younger children or older adults. Upon completion of my experiment and results, I found that adults (Ages 30-44) made the best eyewitnesses. I also found that while children (Ages 9-15) may not always be the best eyewitnesses, their accurate perceptions are on par with adult eyewitnesses. Finally, very young children (Ages 4-8) and senior-age adults (Ages 65-84) are not as accurate in their perceptions.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1284) Do Children Believe What They See More Than Adults?

For my project, I tested who believed what they see more, kids or adults. I thought that kids would believe more because they haven't really formed all of their opinions and are probably more open to changing their minds. Adults have had their beliefs for a while so I thought they would be more stubborn about changing their minds. I chose urban legends as the topic to measure belief. My process was having participants take a quiz on Survey Monkey saying how much they believe in Big Foot, Ghosts, Aliens, and Closet Monsters. Then, they watched some videos about each and retook the quiz. I measured how much change there was for each question in both age groups. I learned that kids changed their minds more, but they didn't always believe more. If I did this project again, I would use a larger group of participants and I would use the same type of videos for each myth (entertaining vs. informative).


[Chemistry] (1CH-1286) Does Adding Pudding To Chocolate Chip Cookies Make Them Better?

How adding different amounts of starch to the chocolate ship cookies affects the product of the cookies.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1287) Which Style Of Paper Airplane Will Fly The Farthest?

I made six different styles of paper airplanes. I chose paper that was the same weight and built the airplanes according to design instructions. I took the planes to an indoor location to control the environment. Each plane was thrown 10 times. I used masking tape to mark where the plane landed & a measured the flown distance. I graphed the data so the results could be compared. The Hammer plane flew an average 40% further than any other style. It would be interesting to try this experiment again flying the planes in an outdoor environment to see if the results changed.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1288) Voltaic Pile

Creating batteries to measure voltaic pile.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1289) Glow Sticks

What effect does different temperature of water and different amounts of water have on gow sticks?


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-2290) Good Snow Bad Snow

Measuring whether there was more pollution in the snow in the mountains or in the city.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1291) A Race To The Top

What effect does the duration of artificial light have on the growth and germination of mung beans?


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1292) Heads I Win, Tails You Lose

This science project considers whether a coin toss is really 50/50. Scientists have studied coin flipping and proven it is not 50/50. It is really 49/51. My hypothesis shows when a penny is flipped 100 times in one flipping method it will land on tails more. I am using the flipping method. The flipping method is where I place the penny on top of my thumb. Then I flick my thumb up and the penny will fly up. Finally I caught the penny and turned it over to my other arm. The penny will land on either heads or tails. I liked all the math situations I did to make it really good.
Probability is a measure or estimation of likelihood of the occurrence of an event. The outcome of coin flipping has been studied by Persi Diaconis and his collaborators. In the study of statistics, coin-flipping plays the role of being an introductory example of the complexities of statistics. Probabilities can also be used as percentages. The probability of Fred getting to school on time is 85 percent. The idea of Probability was developed first by a French mathematician named Blaise Pascal who lived back in the 1600s.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1293) A Bacterial Smackdown

Do natural remedies such as essential oils kill backteria faster than pharmaceuticals?


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1296) How To Throw A Party Without Your Neighbors Hearing

Which materials are the best sound proofing materials?


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1298) Do Video Games Affect Blood Pressure?

Lots of people like video games and many people get very emotional and crazy when they play. I wanted to measure the effect of video games on peoples' blood pressure to see if it increases, stays the same or decreases. I will show the results and compare different people to see if there are any patterns.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1300) How Soda Is Bad For Your Body?

I want to see how soda affects the proteins in our bodies by testing different sodas with an egg to see how it affects the shell. The shell of an egg is mostly protein, so I think it would have the same effect on our bodies. I will see what happens and report the results to see what sodas are bad or worse for your body.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1303) Stain Wars

My project is based on which detergent would remove stains the best from a middle school student's clothing. I tested Tide, All, Gain, and Purex, and I hypothesized that Tide would remove the greatest amount of stains from each project. I had to stain each of my 4x4 white strips of fabric with juice, dirt, chocolate, red pen, and pizza grease. I then had to wash each strip on a cold water medium spin cycle for 45 minutes. After looking at my data, I found that Tide had the best results, followed by Gain, All, and Purex. My hypothesis was supported in my project, and if I were to do this project again, I would change my fabric colors and stains.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1306) Let Your Fingers Do The Talking

Abstract
My project is about fingerprints. I picked this project because I have always been interested in CSI. My purpose was what is the effect of fingerprints on different surfaces? My hypothesis was if I lift fingerprints off of different surfaces, then glass will produce the best fingerprint, because it is the smoothest surface. For my experiment the first thing I had to do was gather my materials, black powder, fingerprint brush, tape, glass, tile, plastic, and fingerprint paper. Then I had to lay out all my materials. After, I rubbed my thumb across my forehead to get the oils off of my face and on to my finger to make a clearer print. I then place my finger on one of the surfaces firmly, but quickly. I then used the black powder and fingerprinting brush to uncover the print. After, I lifted the fingerprint with tape and placed it on the fingerprinting paper. Then I repeated steps 1-5 two more times on the same surface. Lastly I then repeated steps 1-6 again on the other two surfaces. After my analysis I did my conclusion. From my science experiment I can conclude that my hypothesis was correct. Glass produced the best fingerprint; although all of the surfaces produced okay prints. If I did this topic again I would try lifting fingerprints off of surfaces that are not flat. It would be interesting to see if surfaces that are flat produce the best fingerprint or surfaces that are not flat.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1309) Does Degassing Seeds Improve Germination And Growth Rates?

This experiment tests whether or not degassing, or sucking the air out of seeds, improved germination and growth rates. Wheat grain and lima beans were submerged in separate jars of water. In the experimental group, the air was sucked out of the jar with a vacuum pump. The hypothesis was that degassing would improve growth rates. However, the hypothesis was incorrect. Degassing either destroyed the seeds or made no difference, depending on the seed.


[Chemistry] (1CH-2310) Can Oxygen Produce Heat?

We became interested in exothermic chemical reactions and learned that certain heat packs heat up through an exothermic reaction when exposed to air according to this formula: 4Fe + 302 --> 2Fe2O3 + heat energy. We hypothesized that increasing exposure to oxygen would increase the temperature and rate of heating for the heat packs.

To test this, we we used clear tape, an oxygen tank, and catalase extract (that we prepared from potatoes) to change the levels of oxygen exposure for different heat packs. Samples included a control pack (unexposed to oxygen), a pack 25% exposed to room air, a pack 50% exposed to room air, a pack 100% exposed to room air, a pack 100% exposed to room air plus catalase and H2O2, and a pack 100% exposed with intermittent exposure to 100% oxygen. We used an infrared thermometer to measure the temperature of the packs every 5 minutes during each of three 90-minute trials.

As expected, the sample exposed to 100% oxygen got the hottest during the 90 minutes and had the highest rate of heating during the first 15 minutes. The control heat pack did not heat up at all. For the order of the samples in between, we were right in our predictions except that samples 4 & 5 (100% exposed room air and 100% exposed with catalase) were switched. We think this happened because the catalase extract was cold and likely absorbed heat, bringing down the temperature readings for that sample.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1311) Glowing In The Dark

My science fair project is an experiment to determine which environment would make a glow stick last longer. Would it be a colder environment like a freezer or a warmer environment like a trunk? My hypothesis was that the chemicals in a glow stick would last longer in a colder environment.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1314) Do P Lants Grow Better In Artificial Light Or Sunlight

The purpose of doing this experiment was to shoe that there is not only one source of light, sun, to help a plant grow. The problem I was trying to solve was figuring out if there was another way to give light to a plant for growth. In my experiment I showed that you could use a lamp to grow a plant, and use that as sunlight. In my research I found that the lima bean plant that used artificial light and the plant with sunlight had darker leaves. I observed that this was true when I looked at my plants. The results from the plant growths were, artificial light, trial:1 9 centimeters, trial:2 8 centimeters, and trial:3 6.5 centimeters. For the plants grown in natural light were, trial:1 11.5 centimeters, trial: 2 10.5 centimeters, and trial: 3 9 centimeters. I concluded that both plants grew a good amount, but the sunlight plants grew a bit taller and faster. The results of my experiment did support my hypothesis, because I said that artificial light would grow less, which was true.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1316) Black Dots Heat Pool Water

My question is: In warm climates can a non-heated swimming pool be warmed/ heated by the sun through the use of dark spots on the bottom of the pool.
I have found through my research that using black dots to warm/heat a non-heated pool would work, be eco friendly and very cost efficient. Using the black dots would warm the pool to a temperature that is suitable to swim in, not to hot, not to cold. Having the entire bottom of the pool being black would heat the pool to a higher temperature but would be very unappealing.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1317) It's Not As Clean As You Think

This project was created to determine the cleanliness of three separate houses, by measuring the amount of bacteria in each.

The same six surfaces in each home were swabbed and transferred to petri dishes full of nutrient, Agar. Dishes were then stored in the Granite Technical Institute Biotechnology Lab. Samples were observed and recorded after three days. Using a penny for size consistency, then number of colonies in each dish were counted and recorded. This allowed the data to be analysed by house and surface.

I had hypothesized that the house with the younger children would be the "dirtiest" house. However, based on the results, it was clear that I was unable to determine the cleanliness of a house by testing for bacteria alone. I was surprised by the results..


[Chemistry] (1CH-1318) What Type Of Salt Melts Ice The Fastest?

The purpose of this project is to determine what type of salt will melt ice the fastest. My hypothesis was that Kosher salt would melt ice the fastest. The project materials consisted of five blocks of ice, table salt, Kosher salt, rock salt, and Epsom salt. Five identical plastic containers were each filled with two cups of water and placed in the freezer for a few days. On the day of the experiment, 2 tablespoons of each type of salt were measured and poured on the respectively labeled containers (one container had no salt to act as a control). A timer was set and observations were made and recorded every 10 minutes for a total period of two hours. At the end of the experiment, the total amount of water that had melted was measured and recorded. Results showed that the rock salt melted ice the fastest. This proved that my hypothesis was incorrect and I could have improved my experiment by learning more about the different types of salt and then repeating the experiment. What I learned during my experiment was that some salts melt slower than others and some salts caused the ice to squeak or make funny noises. This lead to the question of why does some ice squeak or make funny noises while melting? This would be interesting because you would get to experiment with different salts to see why they make funny noises.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1324) Having A Bad Hair Day?

I was curious about the differences in hair types because my hair is really curly and my mom’s hair is straight. I wanted to find out if humidity has a different effect on curly hair versus straight hair. I built two hair hygrometers, one with straight hair, one with curly hair. I had the hygrometers indoors for 2 hours and then I put them outside for 1 hour, marking the results after being inside and out. After that I brought them inside and checked them every 3-7 minutes to see when they got back to their original indoor humidity. The curly hair was more accurate indoors, but the straight hair was more accurate outdoors. And I found that on average the curly hair came back to its original indoor humidity faster than the straight hair. My conclusion was that my hypothesis was partially right and partially wrong because the curly hair was not the most accurate in all of the experiments. If I were to do this experiment again I would do it in summer and with different hair products, to see if they reduce or increase the impact of the humidity on the hair.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1326) Golden Ratio

How do you determine facial beauty? My project explored the question if celebrities that match the golden ratio are considered to be the most attractive? My hypothesis was that the golden ratio would not determine who people think are the most attractive.

The history of the golden ratio goes back to Leonardo da Vinci in his body proportion painting. The “golden ratio” is also known as “golden rectangles”. The golden ratio can also be expressed in architecture and plants. Humans tend to find things using this ratio pleasing to the eye.

I collected ten photos of celebrities. For each celebrity I calculated ratio from seven different aspects of the face. After I found the ratios, I calculated the difference between the face ratio and the golden ratio. I used the absolute value of those differences to determine which celebrity was closest to the golden ratio. I ranked ordered the celebrities from one to ten based on these values. After reviewing the ratio data, I concluded that Miley Cyrus had the ratios most closely and consistently.

Then I had twenty 20 fellow students (10 boys and 10 girls) rank each celebrity photo. Based on the survey results, Taylor Swift was voted the prettiest, but she had had ratios that were the furthest away from the golden ratio.

I have concluded that the golden ratio did not work to predict facial beauty in my study. It is possible that there is more to beauty than just how we think things look.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1327) You Nailed It!

PROBLEM: To determine if nail polish slows the growth of nails.

PROCEDURE: First we trimmed both thumbnails for baseline measurements. Next, we painted our right thumbnails with clear, Revlon nail polish. We measured our thumbnails weekly and recorded these numbers for 4 weeks. Finally, we trimmed our thumbnails and started over, repeating these steps three times.

DATA: In the first trial, 20% of test subjects had faster growth of the painted nail, 30% had faster growth of the unpainted nail, and 50% of test subjects had equal growth of both nails. In the second trial, 20% of test subjects had faster growth of the painted nail, 50% of test subjects had faster growth of the unpainted nail, and 30% of test subjects had equal growth of both nails. In the third trial, 20% of test subjects had faster growth of the painted nail, 20% of test subjects had faster growth of the unpainted nail, and 60% of test subjects had equal growth of both nails. Overall, 20% of the time there was faster growth of the painted nail, 33% of the time there was faster growth of the unpainted nail, and 47% of the time there was equal growth of both nails.

CONCLUSION: The results show that half of the time subjects noted no difference in thumbnail growth with nail polish or without nail polish. 1/3 of the time there was faster growth of the unpainted nail and 1/5 of the time there was faster growth of the painted nail.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1329) Can A Car Float On Magnets

Magnets have forces that can repel off of one another. This is caused by magnetism. Magnetism is something that we cannot see. Though you cannot see magnetism, you can feel it. A fun way to test magnetism and have fun with it too, is that you can take two magnets and find their opposite forces and push them together. Sometimes the types of magnets you buy have different strengths. The magnets used in this experiment were a little weak. Another way to test its magnetism is by taking five paper clips and connecting them to each other and sometimes your magnets can hold three at a time.

For the test, twenty one magnets were glued in an octagon shape on a wooden board. Then four magnets were glued in a row on a car. Then four magnets were held over the board and the car was dropped, but that did not work. The exact same thing happened in all the other tests. The goal was not achieved through multiple tests, but my CD test proved that on can make an object float and move with support or a guide.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1334) Watt's Up?!

For my project I wanted to find out if plugging plugs in different orders in a power strip would affect the wattage it uses. I tested this experiment with the plugs of a computer, a monitor, and a printer. There were six possible combinations that the plugs could be put in. I tested the wattage used with a watt reader.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1335) Oil, Water And Temperature

The goal of my project was to find out if the temperature of an oil and water mixture affected how fast it separated. My hypothesis was that the mixture at the highest temperature would take the longest to separate. I did an experiment where I made four oil and water mixtures different temperatures and tested how long it took the mixtures at the different temperatures to separate. My results showed that the coldest water and oil mixture took the longest. Further research made me think this happened because the cold one had the least kinetic energy.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1339) Deteriorating Steak

I wanted to see what would deteriorate a piece of steak fastest. Would Pepsi, OJ, or lemonade deteriorate it the fastest each liquid had 30 days to deteriorate the steak.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1340) Blacksmith's Heat Treat

Blacksmiths quench metal in different media for different hardness, but which media causes the metal to be the hardest? My project looks at the hardness of heat treated steel quenched in three different media. My three different independent variables were the quenching media of water, oil, and dirt. I hypothesized that the water would quench the metal the hardest. I heat treated three sets of samples and quenched them in three different media. I then tested the hardness of the samples by putting each one in a vise and tightening the vise the same rotation for each sample and then using a digital microscope looked at the indentions. The sample with the shallowest indention was the hardest. My results show that the sample quenched in water was the hardest, while the sample quenched in dirt was the softest.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1341) Don't Rock The Boat

Will a keel make a boat more stable? I tested a boat in water to see if a keel would make it more stable. First I tested the boat without a keel and then I attached a keel and did the same test. I wrote down and then charted the results of the tests. A keel does make a boat more stable.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1343) Who Chewed My Chicken?

This project's main focus is mechanically processed chicken nuggets from fast food restaraunts vs. whole meat fast food chicken nuggets. How do they compair health wise? What is in processed chicken nuggets? My expirement focussed on if these nuggets would grow mold, and how quickly. My experiment turned out to be inconculsive. None of the chicken nuggets grew mold. I sprayed the chicken nuggets with water beginning half way through the project and still no mold. I added a home made chicken nugget to the expirement part way through the four weeks, and still no mold. My project as a whole focusses on things I have researched, learned, and how I would do things differently if I were to do the experiment again.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1344) How Does Hand Dominance Affect A Person's Ability To Do A Puzzle?

Since I enjoy doing puzzles and also I enjoy doing activities with my hands I decided to do a science fair project relating to these two subjects.
My hypothesis was the participants would form the puzzle faster with their dominant hand since they are used to using it more.

I had 20 participants for this experiment. My variable was going to be hand dominance. I also had 20 boxes of puzzles. I had 10 boxes of puzzles with a Jake pirate set and 10 other boxes with a bunny set. (20 in all) I had the participants do the Jake puzzle with their dominant hand and then I had them do the bunny puzzle with their non-dominant hand. I timed each participant with a stop watch and had each participant do the same thing. When they were done forming the puzzle (which included 24-pieces) I stopped the stop watch and recorded their time.

My conclusion was the participants formed the puzzle faster with their dominant hand. I was right! 12 participants formed the puzzle faster with their dominant hand. 3 had formed the puzzle faster with their non-dominant hand and 5 people had formed the puzzle with the same amount of time on each hand.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1345) An Egg Valuation Of Eggs

The purpose of my experiment was to find out how vinegar, salt water, and Kool-Aid affect an eggshell. I researched the uses of acids in vinegar, Kool-Aid and salt water. My hypothesis was that if I put a raw egg in vinegar, salt water, and Kool-Aid then the eggshell will dissolve in the vinegar and Kool-Aid, but not in salt water, because I have learned in my research that vinegar and Kool-Aid contain acid, but salt water does not.

For my experiment, I put an egg in tap water, salt water, Kool-Aid, and vinegar. Each egg was in the liquid for 3 days, taken out of the fridge only for observation and pictures. What I was looking for was color change and/or any changes in the hardness of the shell. My experimental variable was the type of liquid. The controlled variables were type and size of egg, bowls, environment, time, temperature and amount of liquids.

The results of my experiment were that the eggshell dissolved in vinegar, partly in the Kool-Aid, and not at all in the salt water. The vinegar made the egg turn into a rubbery, fragile ball. The Kool-Aid turned the egg dark orange and red goo came off of it. The egg put in salt water did not change in color or in any way. As an extension to my project, I can put other objects such as pearls or chalk, which also contain calcium carbonate, into these solutions to see what happens to them.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1350) Fast Fizzing: The Effect Of Size And Temperature On The Speed Of A Reaction.

Alka-Seltzer tablets fizz when you put them in water. When the tablets dissolve they release carbon dioxide into the air. Can you make the tablets fizz faster or slower by changing the size of the tablet by cutting it into smaller pieces? Can you change the speed of the reaction by changing the temperature of the water?


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1352) Bubble Bubble Toil And Trouble

The purpose of my experiment was to try and see if different temperatures would affect how long a bubble lasted. My hypothesis was that a cold bubble would condense and get heavier and pop faster. I took 3 identical clear jars, and poured (60ml) of my bubble solution into each jar. I then took the jar that I labeled warm, and heated it to 119°F. I used a straw and blew bubbles for two seconds and waited for the first bubble to pop. I did that four times for each jar. I put the cold jar in the freezer and froze it till it was 35.6°F. I then blew bubbles for two seconds and waited for the first bubble to pop. I did the same for the room temperature. I kept the room temperature jar in the room and it was 69.3°F.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1354) Falling Objects

I dropped 2 balls from a high place and recorded which ball fell faster the lighter ball or the heavier ball.


[Chemistry] (1CH-2355) Plastic Milk

Got Milk?
All newborn mammals survive on it. Without it there would be no ice cream, cheese, or yogurt. There's really no denying the value or pleasure of milk. Scientists say it could help to produce a biodegradable plastic for furniture cushions, insulation, packaging and other products. How strong will the plastic actually be, and what else can we build with plastic milk?


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1362) Memory Challenge:Kids Vs Adults

In my project, I got twenty kids and twenty adults for a total of forty tests. I let them study this made up vocabulary that I made up myself. Once they finished, I let them play a memory game for one minute and a half. This was to jumble their brains and see how well you can remember multiple things. On the back, they wrote how many pairs they got. After that was done, I had them do the test. They were timed for one minute and a half again. Then I corrected the test and gave the test back so they could write on the back, why they didn't get one hundred or if they did get a perfect score, how did they do it? I think this experiment could help scientists see how adult and child brains work and remember things. They could also see how well the hippocampus in a brain works depending on the age of the human. I think that kids would have gotten higher scores if they weren't always on the phone or thinking about it. The adults didn't have video game systems so their brains aren't thinking about how to get past level 14 in some video game. The problem that adults also have is that they didn't take the test seriously because they were probably thinking about their job or their kids or maybe just too stressed out to remember a few made up words.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1363) Avoiding Disaster

The experiment was which bridge was stronger, triangle trestle bridge or square trestle bridge. The bridges were built using Popsicle sticks, glue and binder clips. They were tested at the Kearns Recreation Center weight room. The square bridge first. It was placed on a level floor and a 45 pound disc weight was placed on it carefully one at a time. At 225 pounds there was some cracking noises. At 315 pounds one stick on the bridge started to bend. The square bridge held 495 pounds! The triangle bridge second. It was also placed on a leveled floor. Again, one at a time 45 weights were carefully placed on it. At 405 pounds there was some cracking noises. At 450 pounds one side started to cave in. The triangle bridge also held 495 pounds! The triangle bridge is stronger because there wasn't any noises until 450 pounds, but the square bridge the cracking started at 225 pounds. The hypothesis was right but the triangle bridge was not leveled. It is important because if engineers build a square bridge and it collapses, thousands of lives could be lost.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1365) Doggie Airbag

My project is an invention so dogs can ride safely in cars. Many accidents happen every day where dogs or passengers are injured because dogs are not restrained in cars. Therefore, I have invented the Doggie Airbag to protect both dogs and passengers. I made a prototype using two stuffed dogs as models. I also used a C02 cartridge for the inflation. I have not yet tested the prototype on live animals but I have tested the necessary length of the strap which tethers the dog to the seatbelt and also inflates the airbag. I have concluded that my device is so far successful however further testing is needed before it can be tested on a dog or determined to work properly.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-2366) Changing The Plastic Cycle

Only 30% of all plastic bottles used in the United States are recycled. We wanted to know if we could change a person’s recycling habits. We conducted an experiment with 9 participants in our neighborhood. We collected 2 weeks worth of plastic that they normally recycled. Then half of our group received an informative presentation about plastic from us. We counted, weighed and sorted the recycled plastic. Overall, our data showed that individual recycling habits vary. During the second two week period all participants increased the amount of plastic they recycled by 37%. Therefore, we conclude that our presentation did not influence a person’s recycling habits. There may be several factors that contributed to this increase in the amount of plastic recycled.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1376) Heads Up!

Force, acceleration, and the human brain with concussions were studied for this project. Acceleration played a big role in this project, as well as the human brain. Concussions and headgear was questioned this year, so that is why this project was made. Two different kinds of headgear were needed to prove if they do really do help prevent concussions. To test this project, much thought was put into how to test it. A pendulum was used to get the speed and force that the project will need at the end of the pendulum was a soccer ball to help it become more accurate. An accelerometer was used to show the acceleration and from knowing the calculations, the acceleration was converted to force. From there the answers were revealed. It turned out one headband contained polyethylene foam. That foam claimed to block out force, which it did. This project needed to expand the time, and cushion the impact. That headband only cushioned the impact, while the other did both. The other head, which contained polymeric foam, did best on all of the tests. The headband that contained polyethylene foam had almost as much impact without a headband. This project could help many people who are wondering if and how these headbands work. In conclusion, I accept my hypothesis because I predicted that certain types of headbands prevent concussions better than others. I also reject my hypothesis because I predicted that polyethylene foam will help prevent concussions best.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1377) Burning Biofuels

Question: Does a renewable fuel produce the same level of energy of an equivalent amount of nonrenewable fuel? Hypothesis:
A biofuel will produce the same level of energy as an equivalent amount of nonrenewable fuel. Investigate whether a renewable fuel(vegetable oil)produces the same amount of energy as a nonrenewable fuel (motor oil), by burning each fuel to see which fuel produces more heat.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1382) Inversion Invasion

My question is "Does the pollution in the inversion affect plants in Salt Lake?" My hypothesis is that if pollution is bad for people, then it will be bad for the plants too. I will set up two identical terrariums and give them the exact same amount of water and light. In my variable tank, I will light a fire and trap the smoke to simulate the inversion. I will observe and measure the plants over months of repeating this process to find the results.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1383) We Are All In This Together

Emulsifiers are used in food to keep liquids from separating. Natural emulsifiers can come from animals and plants. I was curious if one type of emulsifier would work better than the other.
A common food made at home that manufacturers use emulsifiers in, is salad dressing. I decided that I would test the natural emulsifiers using vinegar and vegetable oil.
I mixed ½ cup of vegetable oil and ½ cup of white vinegar tinted with 2 drops of food coloring (red- for no emulsifier, green- for plant based emulsifiers, and blue- for animal based emulsifiers.)
I chose 4 plant based emulsifiers (chia seeds, xanthan gum, guar gum, and soy lecithin) and 4 animal based emulsifiers (egg whites, egg yolks, whole eggs, and lard).
I placed 1 tablespoon of emulsifier into a labeled jar.
I had a control where there was no emulsifier added.
I stirred the oil, vinegar and emulsifiers together, and timed how long it took for the oil and vinegar to separate.
During experiment #1, I learned that 1 tablespoon was too much emulsifier. For experiments #2-#4, I decreased the amount of emulsifier to 1 teaspoon.

In support of my hypothesis; lard, an animal-based product, proved to be the best emulsifier. Lard stayed blended for the longest length of time. When the lard did separate, it did not separate entirely, most of it stayed blended. Lard also had a creamy texture, while guar gum and xanthan gum had a slimy consistency.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1387) How Does The Splatter Matter?

Using water balloons how does velocity affect the size of the water splatter.


[Chemistry] (1CH-2388) Rise, Pancake, Rise!

For our project, we took regular pancake mix and used different leavening ingredients such as: baking powder, baking soda, and yeast. We wanted to find out if leavening ingredients affected the growth of the pancake while it was cooking.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-2390) Making A Robotic Hand

We built several robotic hands and tested them and their success rates.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1394) Rubber Band Powered Cars

My project is about rubber band powered cars. In this project, I was trying to see which kind of rubber band worked better on a Lego rubber band powered car. I used nine rubber bands attached one at a time to my car, spun it over the axle and released, then I measured the distance each rubber band was able to carry the car.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1397) Temperature V.S. Tablets

First I made a diagram and/or table that would show my results at the end of my experiment. Then I prepared a drinking glass so it was filled all the way until the 250mL point, using a measuring cup. Then I marked the 250mL point with the edge of masking tape. Then I would fill 3 plastic cups with the same volume of water but at different temperatures, hot, cold, and ice water. With the ice water, I filled the cup half way full full with the ice then filled it up with cold water just a hair past the tape. Then I let it sit for a minute, then I scooped all the ice out with a spoon (so it doesn't get in the way of the alka-seltzer) so now it's ice cold. Then with all three temperatures, one at a time, I measured the temperature of the water with a Celsius thermometer. Then I had my helper (dad) get ready with the stopwatch and on the count of three i would drop the alka-seltzer in to the ice water at the same time he started the timer. I repeated the same process for the hot and cold water. I dropped the alka-seltzer and started the stopwatch with the other two as well. After every temperature I recorded the results in my data table. I tried the alka-seltzer 4 times with each temperature just to make sure the results were accurate.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1398) Movement Of Fetus From Sugar

Have you ever wondered if sugar is to blame for more active behavior? This project will see how much the fetus in utero moves when a pregnant woman intakes sugar. When four pregnant women reach 32 weeks gestation, they will eat snacks for six days. They will rate on a scale from zero to five how much the fetus moves before and after they eat a snack, zero being no movement and 5 being very active movement. The movement of the fetus after eating most of the snacks increased by at least two points from ratings before eating the snack. The results show that sugary foods do affect the movement of the fetus, but the results were not as high as were expected. The foods with zero grams of sugar also had an impact on the movement of the fetus.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1399) Flashlight Energy; Midday & Dusk

1. Purpose: To see if solar energy can be duplicated with a flashlight at midday and dusk.
2. Methods of research: We measured the energy coming from the sun at midday and dusk using a solar panel. We then measured energy from a flashlight at different degrees.
3. Data/Observation: The data we collected was energy readings with a solar panel and a multi-meter. Difficulties we encountered were that sunlight was interfering with the readings from the flashlight. We originally started measuring at 45 degrees and had to change to measuring around 0 degrees to get measurements for dusk.
4. Conclusions/Applications: Dusk readings can be recreated between 2 and 0 degrees with a flashlight. Flashlights cannot generate the same amount of power as the sun at midday with a solar panel.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1401) Which Battery Lasts The Longest?

Advertisers are always touting more powerful and longer-lasting batteries, but which batteries really do last the longest? This project looked at which brand(s) or type(s) of batteries maintained a steady voltage for the longest period of time in low and medium drain devices. My hypothesis was that the Energizer Batteries would last the longest and maintain the steadiest voltage. My results somewhat surprising, revealing that the well-known Energizer Ultimate Lithium battery excelled in the first experiment with a time of 7 hours and 20 minutes, but was the first to die in the second experiment, running only 3 hours. In the second experiment, the Energizer Rechargeable batteries ran the longest with a time of 7 hours and 25 minutes. All of my other results show that Energizer Maintained a steady voltage, so Energizer came out on top. One of the other big-name brands I tested was Duracell, which came in a not-so-close second in the flashlight tests with a time of 5 hours and 49 minutes, but didn’t maintain a steady voltage in the voltage tests. My experiment also showed that the heavy-duty alkaline batteries that I tested, Rayovac Heavy-Duty and Western Family Super Alkaline Performance (yes, it’s a Heavy-Duty battery) couldn’t maintain a steady voltage.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1405) Pollution May Be Killing Our Food Supply

For my experiment I watered lima bean plants with different types of polluted and non-polluted water to see how it affects the plants' growth. For example, some types of polluted water I used were acidic (lemon) water, water with gas, and chlorinated water. Some types of non-polluted water I used were salt and regular tap water.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-2410) Walloping Walls

Which walls withstand attack the best?


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1413) How High Will The Rocket Fly?

The purpose of the project was to see if changing the size and shape of a nose cone would change how high the rocket will fly and if any one shape would outperform the others. My hypothesis was that the long cone (#3) would perform the best because of its slender profile. During testing the data gathered suggested that the ogive (like a rounded bullet) shaped cone (#4) did the best and number one did the worst.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-3415) Reflexes Who's Faster Boys Or Girls?

The purpose of our experiment was to compare the reaction time of boys ages 10 to 13 versus girls ages 10 to 13. We noticed boys spend a lot of time playing sports at recess and after school. We wondered if this made boy's reflexes faster than girl's reflexes. Our Hypothesis is that Boys have faster reflexes than girls. We built a dropping frame from PVC pipe so that a yard stick would always drop from the same height. We asked each subject to sit in the same chair so they always sat at the same height. We asked the subjects to cup their hand around the 20 inch mark of a yardstick. With no warning, the tester dropped the yardstick. As the yardstick fell, the subject was instructed to catch the yardstick. A tester then recorded the number of inches it took the subject to catch the yard stick. We tested 15 boys and 15 girls and determined the average reaction time for both boys and girls. We discovered that our hypothesis was incorrect. The girls had an average reaction time of 8.13 inches while the boys had an average reaction time of 10.2 inches. According to our experiment, our hypothesis should be rejected because girls had faster reflexes than boys.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1420) Does Weight Affect Speed?

I did my project to figure out how weight affects speed. My hypothesis was that heavier objects would fall faster because of gravity. I tested this by dropping different balls and recording the process. The data that I collected showed that lighter balls dropped faster. I determined from my research that smaller balls fall faster because of air friction. The air friction slowed the bigger balls because they have more surface area. This shows that smaller objects fall faster and in real life if you dropped two things that had the same weight but different sizes the smaller one would fall faster because gravity pulls everything at 32.2 ft per second. The only thing that changes the speed is air friction.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-2421) Lego Car Distance Challenge

We did this experiment because we both like legos. We wanted to learn about car design and what would make a great car. We also wanted to learn about aerodynamics and how it would work on our lego cars.

When we tested our cars, we found that the heaviest car went the farthest. One of our cars, car #3 swerved on two of the three runs. Car #3 was our heaviest car and should have gone the farthest. We think that it did not go that far because it was not aerodynamic.

Then we tested wheels on the frame of car #1. Three of the wheel sets were rubber with wide bumpy tires. One wheel set, #3, had thin, smooth, plastic wheels. We found a trend with the rubber wheels that showed that heavier wheels went farther. Because on our first tests we used #3 wheels with all the car frames, we can show again that heavier cars go farther.

We learned that the heavier the car is the farther it will travel. We did some research and found that this is due to potential and kinetic energy. Potential energy is the energy stored up in an object. When the cars were at the start line, they each had a different amount of potential energy because they had different weights. When we released the cars, the potential energy was turned into kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is energy in motion.

We now understand more about the important factors when designing cars.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1422) Flowers To "Dye" For

My project's purpose was to find which of these five types of white flowers – lilies, roses, carnations, spider mums or daisies – will dye the best in food coloring and water. I placed three of each of the flowers in the dye for 48 hours. Three times a day I (a) observed the tint of the petals, giving each flower a score from 1 to 10 based on cards that showed the same dye in increasing concentrations, and (b) estimated the percent of the flower that was blue. I thought that the lilies would dye the best but I found that the daisies dyed the quickest and the roses tied for the darkest and had the best coverage in the end.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-2426) Lego Evolution In The Washing Machine

Introduction. Recently, German researchers demonstrated that Legos will spontaneously connect when sloshing around in a washing machine. From our experience, we knew that as the size of the brick gets larger, there are many more ways they can bind with other bricks. We performed an experiment to investigate whether adding larger Lego bricks resulted in more and bigger structures.
Methods. We compared our control to our intervention where either 1x2 bricks or 2x4 bricks were added to a core set of 383 bricks washed in a front-loading washing machine. The control set was run three times. The interventions were run twice each: +10 1x2 bricks, +20 1x2 bricks, +10 2x4 bricks, and +20 2x4 bricks.
Results. The addition of 2x4 bricks was associated with more structures than the addition of 1x2 bricks. It also produced more structures not involving 2x4 bricks. 1x structures were the most common in every run. The addition of 1x2 bricks was associated with larger structures than 2x4 bricks.
Discussion. We found that the addition of larger bricks produced more but not bigger structures. This suggests that the number of binding sites was not the reason for our observations. Close observation suggests that the way that Legos floated and interacted on the water surface might explain our findings but more research is needed. Work in this area might help us with more than how Legos connect in washing machines--it might help us understand enzymatic reactions on cellular membranes.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1428) Will You Melt Already!

I tested to see if darker colored crayons would melt faster than lighter colored crayons in a Crayola Melt and Mold Factory that I got for Christmas. I found out that melting them in the machine took about the same amount of time for dark and light colors. After researching I decided to try melting crayons under a heat lamp. The darker colors absorbed more of the light and heat and melted more than the lighter colors.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1430) Craters In The Ground

Do crater form differently in different types of terrain? If all the variables were the same except the type of terrain the meteor landed in how would the outcome be different? If the meteor did not explode on impact what would be the outcome? Craters in the Ground will explain all of these questions. Five types of terrain are used: clay, ash, soil, sand, and flour which represents a different type of terrain not found of Earth. Each of these five terrains represent the lower crust with tapioca starch representing the upper crust. Five steelys are dropped at 75 centimeters into each of the five terrains. Each crater is measured in depth, width, and debris pattern and each crater is logged and graphed. An average in then calculated of each of the five drops, logged and graphed, to give a good estimate of how crater form differently in different types of terrain.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1434) Keyboards For Kenya: Developing A Low Cost Educational Tool For Use In Third World Countries

I was looking for a science fair project that would make a difference in the world. One day my dad came home and said that he received a message on a technology board called Slashdot. Someone on the board was working with people in villages in Micronesia. They were looking for an inexpensive way to teach poor people in the villages how to type so that they could go to the city and get an office job to feed their family. I decided that my project would be to develop a device that people in Third World countries could use to learn to type. I developed a device using an inexpensive keyboard and microcontroller. I also researched power options for those who did not have electricity available to them, and came up with several alternative power forms. I also found and began developing several other uses for my device. In addition to learning to type, it can be used to learn Morse code for emergency communication. I plan to name my product the Teacher's Pet, and develop several other software programs that can be used to teach with my inexpensive, low power device.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1435) Who Needs Spelling

The project's purpose is to determine if out of place letters in words and the age of a person affect reading speed, in Words Per Minute (WPM). To find if any particular order in spelling affect how fast the brain recognizes words.

I asked three people for testing, my sister age 9, my brother age 14, and my dad age 45. All of them like to read. First, I created four types of reading passages with words spelled in different formats. The first passage was spelled correctly to find a baseline for each type of reader. In the second passage, the first and last letter of each word are spelled in the right place, but the middle letters were out of order. In my research, I found out that the human brain recognizes most words if the first and last letters are in the correct place because it processes each word as a whole. The third passage had words spelled incorrectly but keeping the sound of the word similar to the correct spelling. For example, "shoe" would be spelled "shoo". The last passage had words spelled with letters randomly misplaced, to show that the first and last letter need to be in the right place to recognize words.

I tested each participant with the CBM testing format. The participants read each passage for a minute and I recorded the WPM. Then, I compared each passage to the first passage (normal spelling) to find the difference in scores.

I found that the adult was unsuccessful in passages, 2,3,4 as I had not predicted. The teen scored his best with the 2nd passage as he would recognize words easily. The child got the 3rd and 4th passages closest to her baseline scores. This study showed me that children would recognize words easily at any order because they are beginning to develop their brain as compared to adults whose brain are used to correct spelling.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1437) Ants Under The Influence

Ants are a common household pest. I would like to create a homemade and original insecticide effective on western harvester ants. This species is common in the western United States. It was also the only species I could obtain.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1440) Lighting Up Liquids

I tested different drinks to see if those with higher sodium concentration or electrolytes would conduct electricity better.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1442) Measuring Particles In An Inversion

The air quality in an inversion is the worst at the lowest elevations, and this study attempts to capture and observe the pollutants to show that.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1443) It's A Boy, It's A Girl, It's Super Chromosomes!

This was a study of probability regarding the reproduction process. Considering that females are made of XX and males are made of XY chromosomes, each lending only ONE of their chromosomes in the reproductive process, we studied the percentage outcomes of BOY to GIRLS at various intervals over 100 picks with pink and blue candies representing the X and Y chromosomes that would be contributed by a mother and a father.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1445) Red, White, And Blue

Does the color of light affect the output of my solar cell? My hypothesis states: "If I use the white LED it will produce the most power." My experiment and my reasearch do not support my hypothesis. White light will not produce the most power from my chosen solar cell.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1447) Will Listening To Music Make You A Rockin' Student?

I wanted to see if listening to music while doing school work would improve your scores. I hypothesized that listening to music would not help you improve your scores. I tested two fifth grade classes at my school. I tested them with no music, classical music and pop music, over the subjects of math, reading, and reading comprehension. I found three 5th grade level readings about 3 different scientists and then designed a 10 question quiz to test their reading comprehension for each reading. For math, I used three different multiplication tests. The format was identical, just with different numbers. I tested the students every day, right after lunch. The students had the same amount of time to perform each test with each type of music. Data showed that my hypothesis was correct, music did not improve their scores. But, what I found interesting is that scores listening to pop music while doing math are better than listening to classical music while doing math. That gave rise to this question: Does unpopular pop music result in better or worse scores than my Katy Perry popular pop song regarding math scores? So, after my school science fair I decide to do an extension on my project. I tested my class again and also a new 5th grade class with the same pop music as before and an unfamiliar pop song. This is a short summary of what I did for my science fair project.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1451) Jumping Sparks

I have always thought electricity was cool. I was excited when I found this project “Jumping Sparks”. I wanted to see how far sparks could jump. My Hypothesis was that sparks could jump between 2-4 feet.

First my dad and I used the piezoelectric gas grill igniter to build the spark tester, along with stainless steel ball bearings. The stainless steel ball bearings did not work well, so we later used PVC pipe and just taped the wires onto the PVC pipe. We measured the gap between the ends of the wires to see if the spark could jump the gap. We started with a 1mm gap.

We kept increasing the gap until the spark would no longer jump the gap. The maximum gap was 10mm. We then used different materials in the sparks path to see how it was affected.

There were problems at first. We had to run the experiment twice. The stainless Steel Balls made the results very inconsistent. So we rebuilt the spark tester with PVC pipe.

I learned that sparks can jump to 10mm when the voltage is 30,000 volts. I also learned that different things can affect how the spark jumps. I learned that if things don’t work the first time try it again. Jumping sparks are used in car engines. They also can be used in Tasers. It was a fun project.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-2464) Low Vs. High

Hypothesis: We hypothesize that in neighborhoods represented by sixth grade classes at SLCSE there would be fewer households with high-flow toilets than with only low-flow toilets.

Methods: Surveys were handed out to students in sixth grade at SLCSE. Questions asked about the year their house was built, remodeled, numbers of high and low-flow toilets, number of people per household, awareness of low versus high-flow toilets, and willingness to participate in a project of water conservation. Percentage of houses built before 1994, percentage of households with high flow toilets, numbers of high and low-flow toilets, average number of pph and percentage willing to participate in the conservation project was calculated.

Results: Fifty of 58 surveys were returned (86%). 47 complete surveys were included. 65% of houses were built before 1994. The average pph was five. 38%reported only low-flow toilets. 62% of households had at least one high-flow toilet. Most (57%) of those surveyed were unaware of high vs. low-flow toilets. 74% were willing to participate in a conservation project.

Conclusions: Our data show that there are actually more households with high-flow toilets than with only low-flow toilets. We feel this data shows great opportunity for conservation education and high willingness to participate in water conservation. The average pph in this survey suggests that families with school age children are a good group to focus on for water conservation.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1465) Hot Bounce, Cold Bounce

I wanted to test if temperature would affect the bounce height of a golf ball.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1466) Paper, Pencils & Computers...

How has computer typing affected spelling ability?
People who primarily write will have better spelling ability than people who primarily type. This will prove that computer typing and auto-correct has affected the spelling ability of many people, not improving it, but in fact it has gotten worse.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1468) Magnet Experiments

I want to learn about electromagnets and how they work. I also want to test how strong an electromagnet can be when I test it picking up paper clips through different materials.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1469) What Make Cupcakes Rise?

I love cupcakes and want to figure out what specific ingredient in the recipe makes the cupcakes fluffy and rise up to make their shape. I will try the recipe and change ingredients to figure out what the different ingredients do for the cupcakes.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1470) Does The Habitat Of A Plant Affect Its Growth?

Plants need light to grow. Using three different variables I learned that plants need light, soil, and water. Plants will not grow if they recieve to much light.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-2471) Keeping Flowers Fresh ("Alive And Looking Good!")D

Flowers are very pretty. They brighten up a room and make us feel happy. However, when you cut flowers they slowly start to die. Cut flowers lose the capability to make food (sugar) and need a food source to live longer. They also slowly lose the ability to transport water from the stem to the bloom. We wanted to know what might help make flowers last longer.

So, we decided to do an experiment with flowers. We did a little research and found out that soda helps preserve flowers. Soda helps the flower by providing food or sugar that nourishes the flowers and helps keep the flowers looking fresher. We found lots of information about how soda or sugar helps cut flowers last longer. We also discovered that some people recommended putting aspirin in the vase water. Aspirin may kill bacteria that might preserve the blooms on the flowers. So we decided to experiment by putting some flowers in soda and some flowers in soda and aspirin to see which group lasted longer.

Our null hypothesis is that the soda group and the soda and aspirin group are the same. That means the flowers will wilt at the same rate. We will conduct and do the experiment that measures the freshness of flowers over time to see if this is true. If the groups are not the same then aspirin in soda may indeed help flowers last longer than soda alone.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1473) Kick It

I wanted to see how the different size of soccer balls affects how far they can be kicked.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1474) Don't Judge A Candy By It's Color

My project tests if sight influences taste. In my background research, I learned that sight was the strongest sense and I wanted to test that. My hypothesis was that sight would win over taste. I tested 30 participants, 15 remained sighted and 15 were blindfolded. I gave them three hard candies to taste; a purple one flavored cherry, a pink one flavored orange and a yellow one flavored strawberry. The majority of the sighted group got the flavors wrong, while the majorite of the blindfolded group got the flavors correct.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1476) Stop Drop & Roll

This project was to test the rate at which different materials burn. The different fabrics selected were each put through 3 burns. One at 30 seconds,one at 1 minute and the final burn was until the material burned up all the way or burned out. This was to determine what material would be the most likely to protect you if you were in a fire.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1477) The Essential Electromagnetic Phenomenon

This project is about the relationship between magnets and electricity.
Electromagnets are used in many different ways and in many industries. For example they are necessary for power plants, computers, home appliances, engines and high speed trains. The advantage of an electromagnet is that the magnetism can be controlled and turned on and off. An electromagnet can be made by wrapping a wire around an iron bolt, and attaching it to a battery. By increasing the number of loops of wire around the bolt, the electromagnetic strength was also increased. This was tested using 4 different bolts wrapped with an increasing number of loops of wire and counting the number of steel paper clips each one was able to pick up. The test proved the hypothesis that adding more loops of wire increases the electromagnetic strength.


[Chemistry] (1CH-2482) Electric Liquids

The purpose of our project is to find out what liquid conducts electricity the best. From our research we found out that ions are the thing that decides how well a liquid conducts electricity. The more ions a liquid has, the better it conducts electricity. We used a multimeter to test the current and resistance of tap water, salt water, lemon juice and Sprite. We found that salt water conducted electricity the best. This knowledge could be useful in the real world because if you were working with electricity it could help to know what liquids conduct electricity so you could take extra precautions if you were working with that liquid. It could also help if you were making something that would be submersed in a liquid that could be dangerous when exposed to electricity.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1484) Electrical Generation By Fruit

My experiment is about generating electricity from fruit. I choose this project because the use of natural resources is very important to our world if we are going to survive for the long haul. My hypothesis was that out of all the fruit the tomato would generate the highest voltage. I placed a galvanized nail and a copper wire (electrodes) 1 cm apart in the fruit. I then used alligator clips to attach the electrodes to a voltmeter. The lemon generated the highest voltage whereas the banana generated the lowest. Difficulties encountered were minimal. They were rinsing and drying the electrodes in between fruit test objects. I concluded that that citrus fruits (i.e. lemons) produced the highest voltage. There may be an application for using multiple lemons chained together to produce voltage.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1485) Conditions Affecting Table Sugar (Sucrose)Crystal Growth

I was curious how different conditions affect the growth of sugar crystals. A saturated sugar solution was created that would create these sugar crystals. There were different solutions to test the growth of the crystals. There was a chilled solution, a honey, a control, a salt seeded and a sugar seeded. The solution I followed was 9 cups of water in a pot that is combined with 10 cups of sugar dissolved into the pot with the water until no more sugar could be dissolved so I could have completely saturated solution. One way this could help people is if they want to grow sweet sugar crystals fast you can add sugar to it or you can add salt to it. Another way it can help is if you want only tiny micro crystals you can add honey to your solution.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1486) Water Detection Stick

When I visited senior citizen center I came to know few issues like they fall due to unnoticed water on the ground, which motivated me to create something using STEM that can help this case.

I decided to create a water detection stick, which can alert by blowing sound and LED light so blind and deaf people can be alerted.

To build this device, I decided to use water's scientific property that it is a conductor of water. I wanted a switch, which can turn on by a signal, so I learned the electronic circuit for creating a switch on snap circuit kit. I then created the circuit on the breadboard and after testing it work; with some help I put all circuit on a cane. Then tested several times whether the device works.

When one of the legs of cane goes into water it gives the signal to the switch, which turns on, and buzzer blows with LED light is on. Thus the water is detected and the person carrying the stick is alarmed.

Using scientific principles and new engineering techniques I learn, the smart cane can be created which can alert the senior people so they can avoid the road or be extra causes. This will help reducing the fall due to water on the road.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1487) Pollutants & Electricity

My project was about water conductivity, in the project I wanted to see if when you add pollutants to water if it affects how well the water conducts electricity. My hypothesis was that the more water becomes polluted the more it will conduct electricity. In my experiment my procedure was to fill a new, unused styrofoam cup with ¼ cup of distilled water. Using a ½ teaspoon measuring spoon, add 2.5 mL of one kind of pollutant to the distilled water. Measure the solution’s conductivity with the conductivity meter and log the data. Do this 3 more times, adding 2.5 mL of pollutant each time. Discard the solution and the styrofoam cup. Repeat above steps until you have used all of your pollutants I learned that some pollutants will affect how much electricity your water conducts, but that other pollutants do not.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-2488) Magnetic Levitation

In looking at how the number of car accidents, we began to wonder if magnets could be used to help reduce the number of accidents due to ice, water or other road debris. Also, could they be used to reduce the number of collisions that occur.
We thought that magnets could be used to levitate a car above the surface of the ground to help avoid road obstacles. Also, that same properties of the magnets could be harnessed to provide a cushion between cars.
With the proper design magnets could be used to help improve the safety of cars. It is possible to use magnets to provide levitation; however due to the properties of magnets it would require some significant redesign of our cars and roads.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1489) How To Make Your Pop Rocks Really Rock

What kid doesn't like Pop Rocks?! And what kid wouldn't like an even longer Pop Rocks experience? Urban legends claim that kids can die from combining Pop Rocks and soda- but the truth is, beverages won't make Pop Rocks lethal. But I wondered if the pH of beverages could increase the amount of time my Pop Rocks would rock!


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1490) Land Is Not Forever

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of different sediments in the condition of water, gravity and drainage. The problem to be answered is how sand, soil and clay alone and mixed with rocks and moss with water are effected in a landslide. The reason that I wanted to do this experiment is because last year I conducted my experiment on the chemical weathering of rocks and I thought it would be interesting to take this information and put it into my new project. Last year I learned about erosion of rocks and this year I wanted to learn more about the erosion of land and what creates a landslide. Also in my local area was a very large landslide that closed a large mine. This caused layoffs and a very large amount of damage.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1493) Best Insulator

My idea for my project was to find out which type of insulated cooler would keep heat in the best.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1497) Sneezing For Science: Quantifying Germ Transmission Potential Via An Explosive Olfactory Episode

Teachers are always telling students to sneeze into their sleeves, to reduce the chance for spreading germs, is this really the best method? This project was an attempt to answer that question. Four different methods were chosen: no-cover sneeze, bare hand, tissue covering hand, and “vampire-sneeze” into a clothed elbow. From my research I found that whichever method reduced the droplets sprayed would be the best because it’s in the droplets that germs are transmitted to other people. I hypothesized that the “vampire-sneeze” would be the best because the sleeve would contain the droplets the best. Sneezes were produced by sniffing a mixture of fine ground pepper and Timothy hay dust with my mouth coated with a contrast medium made from mixing Karo® Syrup with water and food coloring. Sneezing was over a white 11’ by 6’ butcher paper “target” on the floor while wearing a white painter’s coverall. My results were surprising because the data showed the best way to sneeze is into a tissue covering your hand. The open sneeze produced 441 droplets, uncovered hand 18, vampire-sneeze 2, but the tissue contained all of the droplets. Although my data did not support my hypothesis, I would still argue that the vampire sneeze is the best because the tissue sneeze often resulted with a fair amount of liquid that soaked through the tissue and on to the hand. Without immediate hand washing, as most students would not do, the germs are there to be easily spread around a classroom.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-2499) Which Soap Works Best?

Test which soap get the most dirt off of you skin.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1500) Rain As A Source Of Renewable Energy

Designing an invention that will be assembled as part of a drainage system, and use the kinetic energy of rain water to power the motor hence create electricity.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1501) Get Charged

Utilizing acidic liquids as a power source in order to generate an alternative fuel power.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1505) Arrows

How does the fletchings of an arrow affect its speed and accuracy?
I was inspired to do this project by two people, my dad and my uncle. My dad is an accurate shot and he likes to go hunting deer in the winter. I like to go with him. He is a great influence to me when it comes to hunting. My uncle has shot many animals and helped me so much on this science project. He is also a very accurate shot. This science project helped me learn the many parts of a bow and arrow and how different things can affect the speed and accuracy of an arrow.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1507) Does Watching Videos Cause Your Blood Pressure To Rise Of Fall?

In my project, I tested to see if 6th grade students blood pressures change by watching a range of videos. My results showed that watching videos affects students' blood pressures. Not every student was affected the same way about each video.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1508) The Electric Avengers

My project is an experiment in electromagnetism. I wanted to see what effect, if any, would occur by adding magnets to a generator.I built a simple test circuit using DC batteries, a motor and a motor in reverse (the generator)driven by a rubber band. Data was collected with a volt meter.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1509) Globs Of Gluten

I will determine the differences in gluten content between three types of flour: whole wheat flour, all-purpose flour and bread flour.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1511) Dish Soap Rinse Research

The purpose of my science fair project was to determine which store bought dish soap actually works the best when compared against each other. My mom used one type and my grandmother used another brand. Also, the brand name dish soap that my mom uses cost less than that of my grandmother. I also wanted to know if I would use more soap to get the same results as the big name brand, and how does a fairly comparable brand stand up in performance.
Through smearing butter in three glasses, adding 1 cup of tap water into the glasses, added 1 tablespoon of dish soap into each glass from the three different brands. I then let the mixture sit in each glass for a total of 10 hours.
Through documenting the process, in taking pictures in the duration of the experiment, I was able to determine which brand was the best. I came to the conclusion that the name brand "Dawn" is the superior brand among the three types that I tested.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-2512) The Apple

We used various ingredients to see which ingredients kept the apples from browning the longest. We tested from 8 am to 12 pm.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1513) Temperature Vs. Hemisphere Who Will Win

My project is on temperature and hemispheres. Temperature is how hot or cold it is through the day. Hemispheres are different parts of the earth.

My question is will January 1st have the same temperature in the northern, southern, eastern and western hemispheres.

My hypothesis is that each month will have a different temperature in each hemisphere.

I used a computer with internet access, and a globe for this project.

What I did first was pick out two cities in two countries in each hemisphere. Then the next thing I did was collect the temperature for every month for each of the cities I chose for the past 3 years. Then I compiled the statistics and found the average temperature for each city.

When I was finished collecting my data, I looked at the temperatures I collected and saw the difference between each city and each hemisphere. The results were more different that I thought it would be. I made graphs to show the results for each hemisphere.

The coolest thing I learned and saw was to see the temperature go up or down. Like in the eastern hemisphere in one city it was 5 degrees and in one of the other hemispheres it was 75 degrees in the same month. In some places the temperature was the same or really close to another place.


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1516) Which Dome Dominates? Testing Geodesic Dome Strength

I wanted to do a project on geodesic domes. With the geodesic domes I wanted to figure out if the increased percentage of weight bearing capacity would be equal to the increased percentage of straws. I built three different types of domes. Then I tested each dome by putting a bowl on top of my domes and filling it with water. I figured out that the percentage of weight bearing capacity increased to a greater extent above the increased percentage of straws.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1517) Throw In The Towel

I wanted to test whether or not putting a towel in the dryer would cause clothes to dry faster or not.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1518) How Do Different Fruits Effect The Cure Time Of Gelatin

My hypothesis was that different fruits would effect the cure time of gelatin. I thought the banana would set fastest, followed by orange, then pineapple. For my experiment I made a solution of gelatin, boiling water, and pureed fruits. I put the gelatin in the refrigerator to cool then dropped BB’s in every 15 minutes and recorded the data. In my experiment my results were that the orange usually hardened faster than the banana but the pineapple never hardened which was one of the difficulties in the project. Each trial I decreased the pineapple to see if that would change my results. I learned that the pineapple contained bromelain which interfered with the protein bonds of the gelatin. If I were to do the project again I would try using canned pineapple to see if I would get the same results


[Engineering & Computer Science] (1EC-1525) Variations Of Light Output

The purpose of this science experiment was to determine which light bulb technology is the most energy efficient. Do LED’s produce the same amount of light for less electricity, a claim which has become generally accepted. My hypothesis was that the LED would produce more foot-candles per watt than the compact fluorescent or the incandescent bulbs. To begin the experiment, I bought 40, 60, 75, and 100-watt incandescent bulbs and their LED and compact fluorescent equivalents. I used a light meter to measure foot-candles, an amp meter to measure the amps, and a voltmeter to measure the volts. The results showed that my hypothesis was indeed correct. The LED produced 25% more foot-candles per watt than the compact fluorescent, and nearly five times the foot-candles per watt than the incandescent. The experiment confirmed that LED’s are more efficient than the compact fluorescent or the incandescent light bulbs.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1526) Home Lunch: Nutritious Or Biohazard

My project is testing whether my food is safe to eat at my school lunch time. I used a thermos and a Resistive Temperature Device to measure temperatures. I proved that my lunch is safe if I take a burrito for lunch. It also proved that my lunch is unsafe to eat if I take potstickers for lunch. I then made a prototype for a device that tells you whether you should eat your lunch or not.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1528) Which Liquid Will Make A Plant Die The Fastest?

My project was to test which liquid will make a plant die the fastest: milk, coke, apple juice, or water. My hypothesis was that coke would make a plant die the fastest because it has too much sugar for a plant to hold. I performed my experiment by getting 4 of 1 type of plant and watering it with its assigned liquid. An observation that I discovered was that the milk plant was forming mold. It was also smelling rotten. It was almost a tie to see if coke or milk would die first. My conclusion was that the milk plant died first because mold was forming which clogged the pores and it did not allow any sunlight, nutrients,or oxygen. An application to be made to this experiment is to be very specific with the liquids you use. For example you have to make sure that you are only going to use tap water or diet coke.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-2530) Which Kind Of Salt Melts Ice The Fastest?

We tested different kinds of salts on ice to see which kind melts ice the fastest.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-2531) Pictures Vs. Words

At the beginning, when we first decided to do a science project, we didn't think it would be so hard! First of all, we had to find a project we would be comfortable with. We used sciencebuddies.org to decide our project. We ended up using a project similar to one that had gone all the way to regions! But the project we chose wasn't from science buddies, and because of that, we had to figure out how to work our project all on our own. We did our research, and decided how we were going to do our experiment. For our experiment, we had to have a two minute timer, a list of pictures, a list of words for each of the twenty-four pictures, and most importantly, subjects. In order to get subjects, we had to give them permission slips, saying that their parents gave them permission to participate, as subject in our science project. To test our subjects, we gave them a list of either pictures, or words. then we gave them two minutes to look at their list, and memorize everything they could off of the list they were given. then two minutes to write down everything they could. In all, we tested forty subjects, twenty for pictures, and twenty for words. it turned out that our hypothesis was correct, most people can remember words better than they can pictures.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1533) Co2 Emissions

I am studying the amount of CO2 that comes out of cars and other gasoline engines. To tell how much CO2 comes out, I use a pH meter. But to use the pH meter, I have to bubble the exhaust from the engine into distilled water. The pH meter measures the pH change of the water.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1534) Crypsis In Praying Mantises

When placed in different colored environments, due to their ability to adapt through crypsis, the Mantises will change color.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1537) How 'Bout Them Apples!

This project tested over 9 days where the best location is to store apples, oranges, and bananas long-term.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1539) Maglev Highways

My past research suggests that magnetic levitation (maglev) vehicles use less energy to travel one mile than traditional vehicles do - meaning maglev is more efficient. I wondered how much more efficient maglev was compared to traditional vehicles, and how much money per year travelers could save if the United States replaced it's Interstate Highway System with maglev. I built a model highbred maglev/wheeled vehicle powered by a battery and propelled by a fan. I also built a track that is half maglev and half traditional. I then tested how many times the vehicle would travel back and forth on either side of the track within a minute. I found that the vehicle in maglev mode is 28% more efficient than in wheeled mode. I researched the number of vehicle miles traveled in the United States on interstate highways each year, the average cost of gasoline per gallon, and the average miles per gallon of a traditional vehicle, then calculated that travelers could save over $28 billion per year on gas if the interstate was maglev. The government could use all of this savings to reduce pollution, find a cure for cancer, or help needy people. When I get older my goal is to make this science fair project a reality and give the world the respect it deserves.


[Plant & Earth Sciences] (1PE-1541) Landslides

In my project I looked at three different conditions that I believe can contribute to landslides. I tested mass, slope, and vegetation. I used pennies to represent the mass, sandpaper to represent vegetations and a clipboard to control the slope.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1542) Using Sunlight To Heat Up A Room

Question: Can a cardboard box heat up a room using solar energy? If so, by how much?

Hypothesis: If I use the sun's energy to heat up a room, and I create a homemade solar heater to circulate air into an enclosure to absorb heat by forcing hot air back into a room, then the room's temperature will rise.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-2543) Germ Explosion

Experiment testing how to most effectively keep germs from spreading after a sneeze, using balloons and confetti.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1544) Light And Color

Ever wonder if the color of your bedroom walls make your room more or less bright? My project investigated the intensity of color on light. I painted five light boxes (all the same size), five different colors. The paint colors I chose were the primary colors: red, blue, yellow; and my controls: black and white. I drilled holes in the bottom of the light boxes so a light bulb may be inserted. I tested how many lumens are in each light box based on the wattage of a light bulb (5, 15, and 25 watts). I placed each type of light bulb in my light boxes, and measured the lumens in each light box with a light meter. I purchased my light meter on Amazon. The results were partially as I expected, and somewhat surprising. A white painted room IS the brightest, but a black painted room is NOT the darkest. In fact, a blue painted room is the darkest, even with the highest wattage of a light source.


[Chemistry] (1CH-1546) Melting Chocolate

I wanted to find out if different types of chocolate melt at different speeds. I first made homemade chocolate, then changed the mixture until it was most like solid milk chocolate. This helped me know what is in chocolate, that could affect how fast it melted. I then melted different types of chocolate chips to determine how quickly each melted. I determined that chocolate melts at different speeds because of the mixture of solid ingredients in the chocolate.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1547) Effects Of Dark And Light On Developing Monarch Butterfly Caterpillars

I ordered monarch caterpillar kits. I place one set in the utility closet, and one set on the windowsill by the kitchen sink. I provided needed water twice a day to both groups. I measured each caterpillars growth each day. I took an average of the growth per day and graphed the results for five days. I compared the growth of the caterpillars in the closet to those on the windowsill. My results showed that the caterpillars on the windowsill grew more than those in the closet. I concluded that the caterpillars in the lighted area ate more and grew faster than those in the dark closet. My conclusion is that Monarch butterflies grow larger and look more healthy when they have a normal day and night cycle.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1548) Will A Fishing Fly Float Better On Salt Water Or Fresh Water And Does Temperature Matter?

Test the surface tension of salt and fresh water at cold and hot temperatures. Test by stacking rice grains on a flattened piece of aluminum foil on the surface until it sinks.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1550) The Five Second Rule: Fact Or Fiction

The purpose of this project was to determine if the Five Second Rule is a real thing The variables considered were time, surface and type of food. I placed different foods on different surfaces for specific amounts of time, and took swabs of each individual piece of food as it was used in the tests. I then swabbed a section of a Petri dish for each piece of food. I also took control samples of each thing to be swabbed to see what base I would be working from. I did two swabs for every single test to get a more complete set of data to work with - it was 112 individual tests, including controls. I put each Petri dish in its own Ziploc, and took them to the fume hood in the science lab at my school to grow. Over a few weeks, I observed what was growing in the dishes and recorded what I saw on a chart. I recognized patterns in the cultures that grew: The surfaces themselves were disgusting, but the food controls and the five second tests were not nearly as contaminated. My original hypothesis was that you could rely on the five second rule if you dropped any kind of food on any surface, and that 15 seconds would be too long. My results showed that this was true for five seconds, but after that it depended on the traits of the food.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1551) Comparing The Viscosity Of Household Liquids

Have you ever noticed that some liquids are "thicker" than others? But what does that mean? Viscosity is a measure of the thickness of liquids, or "the resistance of flow," and the marble test is a simple and fun way to compare the viscosity of different liquids.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1552) Delta P H Delta Omega

My science fair project is called delta pH-delta omega. In my project, I combine electricity and physics. I tested solutions with different pHs to see if there was an effect on the resistance. My hypothesis is that the lower the pH is, the lower the resistance will be. I tested my hypothesis with a refined setup. The setup is a 6volt battery connected by wire to a container filled with liquid of different pHs with another wire connected to a 6volt 0.5 amp light. Ohms law I=V/R V=IR R=V/I says that the less resistance there is the more current there will be and vice versa. In my trials I discovered that the lower the pH is the lower the resistance was, and if the pH increased the resistance would increase as well.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1554) The Science Of Bioplastic

My science project is titled "The Science Of Bioplastic." I became interested in this project because regular plastics are harmful to our environment. I wanted to make a bioplastic to help save our environment. The purpose my project is to identify which ingredients make a bioplastic firm and malleable but not brittle. One idea is to make a bioplastic container. I made several bioplastics by changing the amount of different ingredients for each starch type. I also replaced the type of starch and repeated the same steps. Before starting this project, I had to find out what impact the bioplastic had on the environment. I also had to know the key ingredients of making bioplastics: starch, water, glycerin, and vinegar. After researching these facts, I started to make and test my bioplastics. To make the bioplastic, I added the ingredients and mixed them together under heat to a paste. After the paste dried, I started to develop a method to testing the firmness and malleability of the bioplastic by bending the bioplastic. After testing the bioplastic in many different ways, I came to a conclusion that among the four types of starch that I tested (tapioca, corn, potato, sweet potato), the bioplastic made with tapioca starch had the right combination of firmness and malleability. In the future, I will make and test more bioplastics.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-2557) Sensative Hands

Your dominant hand is typically stronger and more coordinated than your non-dominant hand. We will test to see if your dominant hand is more or less sensitive than your non-dominant hand. This experiment will measure how long participants can manage the discomfort of having their hands in ice water. We will test our hypothesis on a group of 15 individuals. Is there a difference in the sensitivity of the two hands?


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1560) The Faster Way To Swim Testing Freestyle Breathing Patterns

Freestyle is the fastest swimming stroke. The breathing portion of freestyle slows a swimmer down by creating more drag in the water but breathing is necessary to keep swimming. My question was, in a 100 yard swim, would breathing every 2 stokes or every 3 strokes lead to a faster completion time? My hypothesis was that breathing every 2 strokes would get a faster time because the muscles would get enough oxygen to work and the swimmers that I tested have been trained proper breathing techniques so breathing shouldn’t slow them down. To check my hypothesis, I tested 15 swimmers from the highest level of my swim team. After a warm up swim, I broke the swimmers into 2 groups. Both groups swam two times with a 10 minute recovery period between swims. Group A: Swim #1 is a 100 yard freestyle swim breathing every 2 strokes. Swim #2 is a 100 yard freestyle swim breathing every 3 strokes. Group B: Swim #1 is a 100 yard freestyle swim breathing every 3 strokes. Swim #2 is a 100 yard freestyle swim breathing every 2 strokes. My results were that 5 swimmers were faster at 2 strokes/breath, 4 swimmers were faster at 3 strokes/breath and 6 swimmers had no difference in time between the 2 breathing styles. I also looked at gender and the order of the swim. I did not prove my hypothesis. I think a 200 yard swim would better show the effect of these breathing patterns.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-3562) Best Jump?

Our hypothesis was: “If we put the ramp at a 45° angle and test it three times, then the car will travel the farthest distance than three other angles.” During the experiment we figured out that the angle cannot be more than 90° because the car will just crash into the ramp. After we finished testing the first angle of 30°, our results were a little disappointing. We then changed the ramp measuring its angle to 45°. The car jumped three times. These results met our expectations in distance. We set up the ramp for our third angle of 60°. These distances were very pleasing and surprising because our hypothesis stated that 45° was going to send the car the farthest. We then discussed our results and challenged our thinking. We decided to run one more test at 50° since the difference of 15° (60 - 45 = 15) was so big. We believed this angle would result in even farther distances. Well, this question led us to spectacular results. We were blown away!


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1564) Hand Washing. The Real Story

Using several different hand washing techniques, hands were swabbed and cultured to find the most efficient way of washing your hands.


[Physics, Astronomy & Math] (1PM-1565) Hockey Friction

Assessing distance a hockey puck can travel on a sheet of ice depending on surface on surface and temperature of a hockey puck.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-2566) Super Steps

We measured different peoples leg lengths and then measured how many steps it took them to walk, skip and run a certain distance. We wanted to know if the leg length determined how many steps they took.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-2567) Does Sugar Effect Smarties?

Does sugar make you read faster or slower


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1569) Controlled Pirouettes While Spotting

Will a dancer do more clean and controlled pirouettes while spotting?


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1570) Our Water, Is It Safe?

I tested 7 water samples with 6 different water quality tests to see if the water was safe to drink.


[Behavioral & Social Sciences] (1BE-1571) All Cows Eat Grass: Do Memory Mnemonics Really Help Your Memory?

My project's question is, do memory mnemonics really help your memory? My purpose was to see if memory mnemonics helps people remember information and if so, to what extent.


[Biology & Biochemistry] (1BC-1575) Avocado Dna

All living things have DNA within their cells. Using simple materials found in my home I was able to extract DNA from both unripe and over ripe avocados. I found that I was able to extract more DNA from over ripe avocados than I extracted from under ripe avocados.


[Medicine & Health Sciences] (1MH-1577) Slow The Flow?

I built a model of the human cardiovascular system to investigate blood flow in the narrowing of blood vessels due to disease. Does the narrowing affect flow in a good or bad way? I hypothesized that a narrowed vessel would slow the rate of blood because of past experience. Wider objects seem to fit more things through them faster. Holes were drilled on each side of a 5-gallon bucket. A 1/4 and 3/8 inch valve and tubing was screwed into the same size measured hole on each side of the bucket. Next the bucket was filled with water and tested for leaks. I tested the time it took for 1 cup to be filled with water from each of the valves. Then calculated the flow rate for each by dividing the volume of water by how much time it took to fill. The data was plotted on a scatter chart and an average figured for each valve. I found the narrowed vessel’s water flow was slower than the wider. I also found that my data was a high correlation positive. I found a trend line or best line in my data. I found the data supported my hypothesis. The data showed that a narrowed vessel did in fact affect how much blood ran through it. This experiment led me to wonder about the heart and how it works, percent differences and how to perform them, and mostly if an unhealthy vessel can affect the other main systems in your body.


[Environmental Sciences] (1EV-1580) Should I Breathe?

On October 29, 2011 our earth grew to a population of 7 billion, and in the year 2040, a mere twenty-six years away, we’re expected to have a population of 9 billion. The media has placed emphasis on issues surrounding this many people and the resources needed for the planet to provide for all these people. I looked at the simple act of breathing and how that could affect our environment as the population grows. Simple anatomy tells us that we breathe out CO2 and the plants use our CO2 and turn it into O2. My experiment was to show that I could change the pH level of simple tap water with my exhaled CO2.The simple act of breathing times the 7 billion now and the 9 billion people in the future creates a large amount of CO2 that can contribute to harming the environment by altering our water supply thus making it harmful to living organisms.


[Energy & Transportation] (1ET-1583) Solar Express

After doing background research and developing my hypothesis, I began my experiment as shown in the procedure. After finishing the experiment, I compared and analyzed my results, proving my hypothesis both true and false and my question answered. The question answered: At what point will a solar powered model car move at the fastest pace if I varied the time of day, and size and angle of the solar panel?